Days of StruggleNo Comments | September 2011
Continued serialisation of the English rendering of Hadhrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad(ra)’s outstanding biography, ‘Seerat Khatamun Nabiyyin’, on the life and character of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(saw). ‘Seerat Khatamun Nabiyyin’ has been translated into English for the first time, and is being serialised in The Review of Religions. This section of the series looks at the Muslims’ migration to Abyssinia, the myth surrounding the so-called satanic verses and the intriguing discussion involving the followers of Muhammad(saw) at the Royal Court of Negus
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Translated from the Urdu by Ayyaz Mahmood Khan
Migration to Abyssinia
When the suffering of the Muslims had reached its limit and the Quraish continued to aggravate the affliction of the Muslims, the Holy Prophet(saw) instructed Muslims to migrate to Abyssinia, and said, “The king of Abyssinia is just and equitable. None are subjected to oppression under his rule.”1 The country of ‘Habashah’, which is known as Ethiopia or Abyssinia in the English language, is situated to the north-east in the continent of Africa. It is exactly opposite to southern-Arabia and with the exception of the Red Sea, no country intercedes it. During that era, a strong Christian sovereignty was established in Abyssinia and the king was referred to as the Negus. As a matter of fact, the ruler there is still called upon by the same name. Arabia had business relations with Abyssinia,2 and in the era that we are currently mentioning, the capital of Abyssinia was Axsun, which is located near the present-day city of Adowa, and until now is considered a sacred city. In those days, Axsum was the centre of a very powerful sovereignty.3 During that time, the personal name of the Negus was Ashamah,4 who was a just, intelligent and powerful king.
In any case, when the suffering of the Muslims reached their limits, the Holy Prophet(saw) instructed that those who could afford to should migrate to Abyssinia. Therefore, upon the instruction of the Holy Prophet(saw), in the month of Rajab 5 Nabawi,5 eleven men and four women migrated to Abyssinia. The well-known names among them were as follows: Hadhrat ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan(ra) and his wife Ruqayyah(ra), the daughter of the Holy Prophet(saw), ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf(ra), Zubair bin Al-‘Awwam(ra), Abu Hudhaifah bin ‘Utbah(ra), ‘Uthman bin Maz‘un(ra), Mus‘ab bin ‘Umair(ra), Abu Salamah bin ‘Abdul-Asad(ra) and his wife Ummi Salamah(ra).6 It is very strange that a majority of these pioneer immigrants were those who belonged to powerful tribes of the Quraish, and the weaker were few and far between. This illustrates two things: firstly, even those who belonged to the powerful tribes of the Quraish were not safe from the cruelties of the Quraish. Secondly, weak people such as slaves, etc., at that time were in such a grave state of weakness and misery that they were not even able to migrate. Travelling south, when the immigrants reached Sha‘ibah, which was a seaport in Arabia at that time, they found a trade ship, by the Grace of Allah, that was just ready to leave for Abyssinia. Thus, all of them boarded safely. When the Quraish were informed of this, they were deeply enraged that this ‘prey’ had slipped through their hands. Hence, they pursued these immigrants, but when their man reached the coast, the ship had already departed, and for this reason they returned disappointed.7 Upon reaching Abyssinia, the Muslims found a life of great peace and protection from the cruelties of the Quraish, after much difficulty and prayers.
A Rumour of the Quraish’s Acceptance of Islam and the Return of Some Immigrants from Abyssinia
However, as some historians have mentioned, it had not been long since the immigrants had migrated to Abyssinia, when a wandering rumour reached them that all of the Quraish had accepted Islam, and Makkah was now a place of complete peace and security. The result of this news was that most immigrants returned immediately. When they reached near Makkah, they discovered that this news was false. Now they were confronted with great difficulty. Ultimately, some returned while others secretly or under the protection of an influential and powerful individual, entered Makkah.8 This incident occurred in Shawwal of 5 Nabawi.9 In other words, the duration between the commencement of migration and the return of the immigrants was only two and a half to three months. As we have mentioned above, the migration to Abyssinia occurred in the month of Rajab and the supposed return date of the immigrants is mentioned as being in Shawwal. In actuality, this was a completely false and unsubstantiated rumour, which was probably spread in order to lure the immigrants to Abyssinia back, and to put them in difficulty. As a matter of fact, on closer investigation, this rumour and the tale of the immigrants’ return, in itself, seems to be baseless. Nonetheless, if it is taken as true, the incident mentioned in various Ahadith could be hidden beneath the surface.
As mentioned in Bukhari, once the Holy Prophet(saw) recited verses of Surah Al-Najm [Chapter 53 of the Holy Qur’an] in the courtyard of the Ka‘bah. At that time, many chieftains of the infidels were also present, along with the Muslims. When the Holy Prophet(saw) completed the chapter, he fell into prostration, and with him all the Muslims and infidels fell into prostration as well.10 The reason why the disbelievers prostrated has not been mentioned in the Ahadith, but it seems that apparently the Holy Prophet(saw) recited the verses of God in such a manner as touched the cords of their hearts. Those verses were such that they particularly illustrated the unity of God, His Power and Majesty, in an extremely eloquent and perspicuous manner, and they reminded of His favours. Then, the Quraish were warned in a very majestic and awe-inspiring manner, that in case they did not refrain from their evil doings they would meet the same end as past nations, because they rejected the Messengers of God. Then, at the conclusion of these verses it was commanded that: Come and prostrate before Allah.11 After the recitation of these verses, the Holy Prophet(saw) and all the Muslims fell into prostration at once, and as a result, these words and this sight had such a miraculous effect on the Quraish, as they also fell into prostration involuntarily. This should not be surprising, for under such circumstances, as have been mentioned above, the human heart, at times, falls in awe and powerlessly commits such a deed as is against its actual principles and religion. Therefore, at times, we have witnessed that during a severe and sudden affliction, even an atheist cries out, ‘O God! O God!’ or ‘O Ram Ram!’ The Quraish were not even atheists, and they actually believed in the Being of God. Hence, after the recitation of this majestic Word, full of awe, the community of Muslims all at once fell into prostration. It had such a miraculous effect, that the Quraish powerlessly fell into prostration as well. However, such influence is usually temporary, and man quickly returns to his original state. As such, the case was the same here, for when the Quraish rose from prostration, they remained the very same idolaters they were before. In any case, this occurrence is such as is substantiated by authentic Ahadith. Hence, if the news of the return of the immigrants to Abyssinia is in fact true, it seems that the Quraish (who were ever-longing to have the immigrants of Abyssinia return), probably utilised this action to spread the rumour that the Quraish of Makkah had become Muslims, and that Makkah was now completely safe for Muslims.
When this rumour reached the immigrants of Abyssinia, they were naturally delighted to hear it, and in the fervour of their delight, they quickly returned. When they were near Makkah, they were enlightened of the actual matter at hand, upon which some secretly, and others under the protection of a powerful and influential Chieftain of the Quraish, entered Makkah, while others set back again. Therefore, if there was any truth in the rumour that the Quraish became Muslims, it was merely confined to the incident of the prostration upon the recitation of chapter Al-Najm. Allah is All-Aware. In any case, if the immigrants of Abyssinia did in fact return, a majority of them set back again. Moreover, since the Quraish continued to progress in their infliction of suffering, and their tyrannies were increasing day by day, other Muslims, upon the instruction of the Holy Prophet(saw), began secret preparations to migrate as well. They began to leave gradually whenever they could find an opportunity to do so. This chain of migration began such as ultimately the number of immigrants to Abyssinia reached 101, 18 of whom were women.12 Very few Muslims were left in Makkah with the Holy Prophet(saw). Some historians have called this migration ‘The Second Migration to Abyssinia’.
Regarding the migration to Abyssinia, it is imperative to mention that some historians have narrated a bizarre tale about the prostration of the disbelievers and the return of the immigrants to Abyssinia. Alleging that because the Holy Prophet(saw) possessed an immense desire that such verses be revealed as would draw the Quraish to Islam, and dispel their hatred and contempt; therefore they say that as a result, upon his recitation of Surah Al-Najm, when the Holy Prophet(saw)reached the following verse:
Now tell me about Lat and ‘Uzza, And Manat, the third one, another goddess!13
Satan took advantage of this passionate desire of the Holy Prophet(saw) and induced him to recite the following:
“Glory to these idols (Lat ‘Uzza and Manat) and indeed, one should remain hopeful of their intercession.”
When the Quraish heard these words they were silenced, as the magnificence and power of their idols had been accepted. Hence, at the completion of the recitation of Surah Al-Najm, when the Companions of the Holy Prophet(saw) prostrated, the Quraish also fell into prostration. In other words the two parties were reconciled into a peaceful settlement. However, following this occurrence, Gabriel(as) promptly came to the Holy Prophet(saw) and notified him of this mistake. Therefore, in place of the satanically inspired verse, the true Word of God was revealed to him, which is now found in the Holy Qur’an, whereby the Quraish resorted to their previous state of discontent. However, since the news of peaceful reconciliation had been widely divulged, prior to its negation, news also reached Abyssinia, and due to this, various immigrants returned to Makkah.
This is the tale that many historians narrate in relevance to this instance. However, bear in mind that this story is entirely a fabrication, and its forgery is clearly evident from every rational aspect. Hence, the great Muhaddithin and leaders of Hadith, such as ‘Allmah ‘Aini, Qadi ‘Ayad and ‘Allamah Nawawi, have expounded with conclusive arguments that this occurrence is false and nothing more than a fabricated Hadith. Thus, ‘Allamah ‘Aini writes in debate of this issue:
‘This story is evidently negated, both in light of narration and common sense.’14
Qadi ‘Ayad writes:
‘Prudent and reliable individuals have not accepted this narration due to the fact that the narration of this story is confusing, and its authenticity is very weak. Moreover, the manner of its narration is also weak and feeble. In addition, no narrator has successfully traced this narration to the Holy Prophet(saw) or any of his Companions.’15
Furthermore, ‘Allamah Nawawi writes:
‘Nothing of this narration is correct, neither in the aspect of narration nor in the aspect of common sense.’16
On the other hand, many A’immah-e-Hadith have not even made mention of this occurrence. For example, the Sihah Sittah [six authentic collections of Ahadith] have not even hinted towards it, though mention of the recitation of Surah Al-Najm and the prostration of the Quraish, is present in them. It is apparent that this narration passed the eyes of the Muhaddithin, who rejected it with belief of its forgery and unreliability. In the same manner, many great Mufassirin17 [commentators], such as Imam Razi, have declared this instance vain and devoid of truth.18 Moreover, among the mystics, sagacious ones, like Ibni ‘Arabi, have stated: ‘There exists no truth in this occurrence.’19 Furthermore, if the verses of Surah Al-Najm, which are replete with teachings against the concept of polytheism, are analysed from beginning to end, the falsehood of this instance is conclusively established. One cannot entertain the belief that in a monotheistic message, which emphasises the Oneness of God with such fervour, a clear verse of polytheistic nature could find a way of inclusion, and that almost simultaneously the same tongue could utter two extraordinarily conflicting statements.
In addition to this, the life of the Holy Prophet(saw) compels common sense to fend off this tale. Prior to his prophethood, he was a man who, all his life, did not indulge in idol worship, despite the fact that his entire nation was idolatrous. Can the common sense of any individual entertain the belief that when a clear order from God Almighty was present, instructing him to raise a voice against idolatry, and enjoin the people to the worship of one God, and the foundation stone of his religion rests upon the unity of God the Almighty, for which he disputes with others, day in and day out, that merely to please the Quraish, upon this instance, he bowed his head towards idolatry? After all, is common sense nothing? Simply cast a glance upon the life of the Holy Prophet(saw). Did the Holy Prophet(saw) ever abandon any of his religious principles for the pleasure of the infidels? In order to prompt the infidels to join forces with him did the Holy Prophet(saw) ever follow the course of hypocrisy and compromise? The Qur’an clearly states:
They wish that thou shouldst be pliant so that they may also be pliant (so that apparently both parties may be reconciled in their opposite beliefs).20
In regards to a man of this disposition, can one make the declaration that he abandoned the Unity of God whilst following the course of polytheism? Albeit, there is one possible explanation, and as ‘Allamah QasTalani and Zarqani have written, and many research scholars have concurred, perhaps this explanation is correct. According to the narration in Bukhari, when the Holy Prophet(saw) recited the verses of the chapter Al-Najm in the courtyard of the Ka‘bah, it is possible that someone from among the ringleaders of the Quraish included the phrase, Glory to these idols (Lat ‘Uzza and Manat) in harmony with the voice of the Holy Prophet(saw), by which some people fell to the misunderstanding that perhaps it was the Holy Prophet(saw) who said these words. For it is proven that during the recitation of the Holy Qur’an, it was the practice of the Quraish to make noise, so as to erase the effect of it. The Holy Qur’an has also mentioned their words as that the Quraish would say:
“When the Qur’an is recited before you, cause confusion by making noise. Perhaps this way, you might have the upper hand.”21
This explanation is also reinforced by the fact that during the Jahiliyyah [age of ignorance], it was the custom of the Quraish to utter this very phrase: Glory to these idols (Lat ‘Uzza and Manat) during their Tawaf [circumambulation] of the Ka‘bah.22 Thus, it is not beyond belief that when the Holy Prophet(saw) recited the verses of chapter Najm, someone from among them might have included this phrase as well, as was their custom. As a result, it might have spurred the temporary ambiguity that perhaps these words were also uttered by the Holy Prophet(saw). Ibni ‘Arabi, Qadi ‘Ayad, Ibni Jarir, Imam Razi and Hafiz Ibni Hajar have also supported this explanation.23
However, there is another fact, which makes the entire tale of this rumour and the return of the immigrants incredulous altogether. The beginning date of the migration to Abyssinia is mentioned as Rajab 5 Nabawi, and the date of ‘the prostration’ has been mentioned as Ramadan 5 Nabawi. Historical accounts state that as a result of this rumour the return of the immigrants to Abyssinia occurred in Shawwal 5 Nabawi.24 Therefore, the gap in time-periods between the first migration and the return of the immigrants is merely two to three months. If the time period is calculated from the date of ‘the prostration’, the time is only one month. Now, in accordance with the circumstances of that era, it is categorically impossible, for three trips to have been undertaken between Makkah and Abyssinia in such a small time period. In other words, first the Muslims travelled from Makkah to Abyssinia, after which an individual from Makkah brought news to Abyssinia regarding the Quraish’s acceptance of Islam. Then the Muslims once again set off from Abyssinia and reached Makkah. The completion of these three trips (excluding the additional time that is consumed in various affairs), were absolutely impossible in such a short time frame. Furthermore, it is not pragmatic that two trips could have been completed between the time of ‘the prostration’ and the time of the alleged return of the immigrants to Abyssinia. At that time, in order to travel from Makkah to Abyssinia, one was required to first go south, then, from there, cross the Red Sea and reach the coast of Africa by ship (which was not always present). Then from the coast, further on to Axsun, the capital of Abyssinia, which was situated at quite a distance from the coast. As per the slow mode of travel in that era, a trip of this magnitude could not have been performed in less than one and a half to two months. From this vantage point, the entire incident in itself turns out to be fabricated and baseless. If hypothetically, there was some underlying truth, then it is no more than that which has been mentioned above. Allah is All-Aware.
An Unsuccessful Delegation of the Quraish to the Royal Court of the Negus
In any case, when the Quraish witnessed that the Muslims had safely slipped from their hands, and went on to lead a life of peace and security in Abyssinia, the fire of their fury was further enflamed. Ultimately, they decided to send two of their exceptional associates, ‘Amr bin Al-‘As and ‘Abdullah bin Rabi‘ah to Abyssinia. Along with this delegation, not only did they prepare expensive gifts for the Negus himself, but gifts for all his courtiers were also prepared, which were mostly composed of hide, for which Arabia was especially renowned in those days. As such, this delegation departed with great splendour. The purpose of this delegation was to bring the Muslims back, so as to subject them to their cruelties once again. Therefore, upon reaching Abyssinia, ‘Amr bin Al-‘As and his associates met with the courtiers of the Negus and presented them with gifts, and through them they acquired access to the court of the Negus. After the presentation of these gifts, they implored the Negus in the following words:
“O your Royal Highness! Some of our foolish people have forsaken their ancestral religion and have fashioned a new religion, which opposes your religion as well. They have caused disorder in our land, and some of them have run away and reached here. Thus, we implore you to send them back with us.”
The courtiers concurred, but the Negus, who was a sagacious king, refused to issue a one-sided verdict, saying, “These people have come under my protection. Until I hear their testimony, I cannot say anything.” Therefore, the Muslim immigrants were brought before the royal court, and addressing them, the Negus said, “What is this matter and what is this new religion that you have fashioned?” Hadhrat Ja‘far bin Abi Talib(ra) responded on behalf of the Muslims, saying:
“O King! We were an ignorant people, we worshipped idols, we ate the flesh of dead animals, we were engaged in adultery and fornication, we severed ties of kinship, we dealt with our neighbours in dishonesty and the powerful among us usurped the rights of the weak. In this state of affairs, Allah sent His Messenger to us, whose nobility, truthfulness and honesty was known to all. He taught us the Unity of God, forbade us from idol worship and gave us teachings of truthfulness in speech, honesty and kind treatment to kith and kin. He taught us to treat our neighbours well and stopped us from adultery, lying and the usurpation of the wealth of orphans, and he held us from bloodshed. He instructed us to worship Allah. We believed in him, and followed him, but for this reason our people were displeased with us and subjected us to miseries and hardships, and tortured us and desired that we abandon our faith by coercion, until we finally left our homeland, saddened, and took refuge in your sovereignty. O King! We hope that under your rule we shall not be subjected to brutality.”
The Negus was greatly touched by this address and said to Hadhrat Ja‘far(ra), “Read to me the word which has been revealed to you.” Upon this, Hadhrat Ja‘far(ra) very melodiously recited the opening verses of Surah Maryam [Chapter 19 of the Holy Qur’an]. Upon hearing these verses, the Negus’ eyes filled with tears, and in a state of great emotion he said, “By God, this word, and the word of our Messiah [peace be upon him], seem to be the rays of a common light source.” Upon this, the Negus said to the delegation of the Quraish, “Go back, for I shall not send these people with you.” The Negus returned their gifts as well. But the ferocious ambassadors of the Quraish were not ones to be silenced so easily. The next day, ‘Amr bin Al-‘As gained admission into the court of the Negus and said, “Your majesty, are you also aware of what these people say about the Messiah [peace be upon him]?” The Negus called for the Muslims once again, who were worried that since they did not believe in the Messiah(as) as the son of God, perhaps the scheme of ‘Amr bin Al-‘As would succeed. But these people were not ones to refrain from speaking the truth, even beneath the shadow of swords. Hence, when the Negus asked, “What are your beliefs about the Messiah [peace be upon him]?” Ja‘far(ra) clearly responded:
“In light of our belief, the Messiah is a servant of God, not God Himself. However, he is an honoured Messenger of Allah who came into being by the word which He gave to Mary [peace be upon her].”
The Negus picked up a straw from the ground and said:
“By Allah, as per your statement, I do not find the Messiah [peace be upon him] greater than even this thorn.”
Upon this statement of the Negus, the court bishops were greatly outraged, but the Negus did not care in the least, and the delegation of the Quraish returned unsuccessful. Following this, the immigrants to Abyssinia lived in peace for quite some time. However, most of them returned to Makkah, near the migration of Yathrab, while others remained in Abyssinia, until the Holy Prophet(saw) migrated to Madinah and the battles of Badr, Uhud and the Confederates, occurred. It was at that time that these people returned to Arabia. This was the era in which the Holy Prophet(saw) was returning from the battle of Khaibar. In the beginning, when most of the immigrants were still in Abyssinia, the Negus was confronted by a war from one of his enemies. Upon this, after mutual consultation, the Companions decided that if required, they should also support the Negus. As such, they sent Zubair bin Al-‘Awwam(ra) to the battlefield across the Nile River to gain insight as to the state of affairs, while the rest of the Companions prayed continuously to God for the victory of the Negus. Therefore, after a few days, Hadhrat Zubair bin Al-‘Awwam(ra) returned to inform them that by the Grace of Allah, the Negus had won victory.25
Continues in the next edition.
1. * As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, by Abu Muhammad ‘Abdul-Malik bin Hisham, p.237, Babu Dhikril-Hijratil-Ula ilal-Ardil-Habashah, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (2001)
* Tarikhut-Tabari, by Abu Ja‘far Muhammad bin Al-Jarir Tabari, Vol. 2, p. 233, Babu Dhikril-
Khabri ‘amma kana min Amri Nabiyyillahisa ‘inda Ibtida’illahi Ta‘ala, Darul-Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon, Second Edition (2002)
2. Tarikhut-Tabari, by Abu Ja‘far Muhammad bin Al-Jarir Tabari, Vol. 2, p. 233, Babu Dhikril-
Khabri ‘amma kana min Amri Nabiyyillahisa ‘inda Ibtida’illahi Ta‘ala…Darul-Fikr, Beirut, ebanon, Second Edition (2002)
3. Chambers’s Encyclopedia, Vol. 1, under the word: “Axum”, Edition 1871
4. Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, by Muhammad bin ‘Abdul-Baqi Az-Zarqani, Vol. 1, p. 506, Babul-Hijratil-Ula ilal-Ardil-Habashah, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
5. At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, by Muhammad bin Sa‘d, Vol. 1, p. 98, Babu Dhikri Hijrati man Hajara
min AShabi Rasulillahi(saw) ila Ardil-Habashati fil-Marratil-Ula, Darul-Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
6. As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, by Abu Muhammad ‘Abdul-Malik bin Hisham, p. 238, Babu Dhikril-Hijratil-Ula ilal-Ardil-Habashah, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (2001)
7. * At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, by Muhammad bin Sa‘d, Vol. 1, p. 98, Babu Dhikri Hijrati man Hajara min AShabi Rasulillahi(saw) ila Ardil-Habashati fil-Marratil-Ula, Darul-Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
* Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, by Muhammad bin ‘Abdul-Baqi AzZarqani, Vol. 1, p. 505, Babul-Hijratil-Ula ilal-Ardil-Habashah, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
8. Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, by Muhammad bin ‘Abdul-Baqi Az-Zarqani, Vol. 2, p. 16, Babu Dukhulish-Sha‘bi wa KhabriS-Sahifah, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebehon, First Edition (1996)
9. At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, by Muhammad bin Sa‘d, Vol. 1, p. 99, Babu Dhikri Sababi Ruju‘i AShabin-Nabiyyisa min Ardi Habashah, Darul-Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
10. Sahih Bukhari, Kitabut-Tafsir, Suratul-Qamar, Babu Fasjudu lillahi Wa‘buduhu, Hadith No. 4862
11. Al-Najm (Ch.53:V63)
12. Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, by Muhammad bin ‘Abdul-Baqi Az-Zarqani, Vol. 2, p. 32, Babul-Hijratith-Thaniyati ilal-Habashata wa NaqdiS-Sahifah, DarulKutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebehon, First Edition (1996)
13. Al-Najm (Ch.53:Vs.20-21)
14. ‘Umdatul-Qari Sharhu Sahihil-Bukhari, Vol. 19, p. 313, Kitabu Tafsiril-Qur’an, Suratul-Qamar, under the verse “Fasjudu lillahi wa‘buduhu” [Al-Najm (53:63)], Darul-Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, Edition 2003
15. Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, by Muhammad bin ‘Abdul-Baqi Az-Zarqani, Vol. 2, p. 25, Babu Dukhulish-Sha‘bi wa KhabriS-Sahifah, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
16. Al-Minhaju bi-Sharhi Sahih Muslim bin Al-Hajjaj, p. 533, Kitabul-Masajid wa Mawadi‘iS-Salah, Babu Sujudit-Tilawah, Daru Ibni Hazam, First Edition (2002)
17. Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, By Muhammad bin ‘Abdul-Baqi Az-
Zarqani, Vol. 2, p. 25, Babu Dukhulish-Sha‘bi wa KhabriS-Sahifah, Darul-Kutubil- Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebehon, First Edition (1996)
18. At-Tafsirul-Kabir, by Imam Muhammad bin ‘Umar bin Al-Husain Fakhr-ud-Din Ar-Razi, Vol. 23, pp. 44-48, Tafsiru Suratil-Hajj, Verse 53, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, Second Edition (2004)
19. Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, by Muhammad bin ‘Abdul-Baqi Az-Zarqani, Vol. 2, p. 25, Babu Dukhulish-Sha‘bi wa KhabriS-Sahifah, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
20. Al-Qalam (Ch.68:V.10)
21. Ha Mim Al-Sajdah (Ch.41:V.27)
22. Mu‘jamul-Buldan, by Abu ‘Abdullah Yaqut bin ‘Abdullah Al-Hamvi, Vol. 3, pp. 322-323, under the word “Al-‘Uzza”, Daru Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon
23. Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, by Muhammad bin ‘Abdul-Baqi Az-Zarqani, Vol. 2, p. 30-31, Babu Dukhulish-Shi‘bi wa KhabriS-Sahifah, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebehon, First Edition (1996)
24. At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, by Muhammad bin Sa‘d, Vol. 1, pp. 98-99, Babu Dhikri Sababi Ruju‘i AShabin-Nabiyyisa ‘an Ardi Habashah, Darul-Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
25. For details of the aforementioned instances refer to:
* As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, by Abu Muhammad ‘Abdul-Malik bin Hisham, pp. 245-250, Irsalu Quraishin ilal-Habashati fi Talabil-Muhajirina ilaiha, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (2001)
* Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, by Muhammad bin ‘Abdul-Baqi AzZarqani, Vol. 1, pp. 503-506, Babul-Hijratil-Ula ilal-Habashah, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebehon, First Edition (1996)
* Tarikhut-Tabari, by Abu Ja‘far Muhammad bin Al-Jarir Tabari, Vol. 2, pp. 236-237, Babu
Dhikril-Khabri ‘amma kana min Amri Nabiyyillahisa ‘inda Ibtida’illahi Ta‘ala………………………. , Darul-Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon, Second Edition (2002)
* At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, by Muhammad bin Sa‘d, Vol. 1, pp. 98-100, Babu Dhikril-Hijratith-
Thaniyati ila Ardil-Habashah, Darul-Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996) * Sahih Bukhari, Kitabu Manaqibil-Ansar, Babu Hijratil-Habashah, Hadith No. 3876