The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophets(saw) – Volume II

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Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad(ra) was one of the sons of the Promised Messiah(as). Born on April 20, 1893 he passed his matriculation in 1910 with distinction, and according to the wishes of the Promised Messiah(as), attained an MA in Arabic in 1916. A great religious scholar and prolific writer, his books and speeches are easily understandable by the average reader. Some of his important works include Siratul Mahdi (Life of the Mahdi), Silsila-e-Ahmadiyya (The Ahmadiyya community), Tabligh-e-Hidayat (Propagation of Guidance), Kalimutal Fasl (The Decisive Word) and Hamara Khuda (Our God). He also contributed countless articles to magazines and periodicals of the Ahmadiyya Muslim community, such as the daily Al-Fazl, and was Editor of The Review of Religions for many years. Sirat Khatamun Nabiyyin is his magnum opus; an outstanding biography of the Holy Prophet(saw), which includes insightful analysis and commentary on various aspects of his life. For the first time this book has been translated into English. The English rendering, “The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophets,” will be serialised in various parts in The Review of Religions.

An intriguing glance at the life of the Prophet Muhammad(saw) after his migration from Makkah to Madinah

Vintage engraved illustration, Holy city and burial place of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(saw), Founder of Islam (Trousset Encyclopedia (1886-1891)

Early Establishment of Madinah and Foundation for the Islamic Government

First ever serialisation of the English rendering of Volume II of Hadhrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad(ra)’s outstanding biography, Seerat Khatamun Nabiyyin, on the life and character of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(saw). In this section, the Holy Prophet(saw) arrives in Madinah for the first time. In whose home would the Prophet decide to stay? What were the circumstances surrounding the construction of the first mosque in Islam?

 

State of Madinah

Masjid Quba, the first Mosque built in Islam

The migration of the Holy Prophet(saw) and his Companions has already been mentioned in Volume I of this book. Now, after the migration, the Medinite life of the Holy Prophet(saw) begins. However, before we begin to discuss this era, it seems necessary to briefly describe the state of Madinah itself, and its population. Without this, it is difficult to fully understand certain aspects of the Medinite life of the Holy Prophet(saw). It has already been mentioned that prior to the migration of the Holy Prophet(saw), the city of Madinah was known by the name Yathrib. However, after the migration of the Holy Prophet(saw), people began referring to it as Madinatur-Rasul, i.e. the City of God’s Messenger. Then, gradually thereafter, it became known only as Madinah. Madinah is an ancient city in the region of Hijaz, situated 200 to 250 miles north of Makkah, approximately 50 miles east off the eastern coast of the Red Sea. In other words, Madinah is situated close to the ancient desert trade-route which runs from Makkah towards Syria. It is for this reason that merchants travelling between Makkah and Syria would at times travel slightly out of their way and stop at Madinah as well. As such, many people from Makkah and Madinah were acquainted with one another, and some even maintained friendly relations.

Madinah is located in the West of Saudi Arabia

As far as location is concerned, Madinah is best described as a valley, which was surrounded by small mountains. Among these was the Mount of Uhud, where a horrific war between the Muslims and disbelievers of Makkah took place, some time afterwards. In comparison to other regions of Arabia, Madinah often receives substantial rainfall and the land is also not sandy and infertile, as is generally the case with other places in Arabia. It is for this reason that, since ancient times, the inhabitants of Madinah have always been farmers by profession. In Madinah, the warm season is intense, and the cold season is bitter. Furthermore, in the era under discussion, malaria and other such epidemics would often break out in Madinah, and people would suffer severely from fever. As such, in the beginning, when the Holy Prophet(saw) and his Companions migrated to Madinah, they suffered immensely due to the change of climate. Many Muslims were struck by fever, and their health was adversely affected. As such, the prayer in which the Holy Prophet(saw) supplicated to God upon witnessing the distress of the Companions is also recorded in the Ahadith. As a result, Allah delivered the Muslims from this difficulty, and the air in Madinah was cleansed of epidemic germs to a great extent.1

Madinah is surrounded by small mountains. Photo: Mount Uhud where later a fierce battle would take between the Muslims and disbelievers

Date palm at a farm in Madinah

In that era, the population of Madinah was not concentrated, rather, it was somewhat dispersed. Every tribe inhabited different areas and had built small castles for their own protection. Ancient records show that the first people to inhabit Yathrib were the ‘Amaliq, who planted date orchards there, and built small castles. After them, the Jews inhabited this area. There are varying accounts as to whether they were of Arab origin, or were immigrants. However, historians are of the general opinion that they were mostly from the Bani Isra’il, who migrated from their homeland to live in Arabia. Afterwards, various inhabitants of Arab origin also gradually converted to their religion and began to live with them. In any case, after the ‘Amaliq, the Jews took up residence in Madinah, and they gradually uprooted or expelled the ‘Amaliq, and took their place. These Jews were divided into three groups: Banu Qainuqa‘, Banu Nadir, and Banu Quraizah. In the beginning, these three tribes generally lived together in great harmony and unity. In accordance with the customs of that time, these Jews also built small castles for their own residence, which were not attached to one another; rather, they were situated at a distance from one another in the surroundings of Madinah. Trade was the general occupation of the Jews, but some of them were also involved in agriculture. The people of Banu Qainuqa‘ were mostly skilled-labourers. Since the Jews were more civilised, well-mannered, and educated than the people around them; they began to develop influence among the people around them, and quickly attained a great deal of power. It was at this time that two tribes from the Banu Qahtan, who were referred to as the Aus and Khazraj, emigrated from Yemen to settle in Madinah. These tribes were from the progeny of an individual named Harith bin Tha‘labah, who had two sons, Aus and Khazraj, and they lived together in great harmony and love. In the beginning, they lived in isolation from the Jews, but later became allies due to their strength and power.

After this, the Aus and Khazraj also began to spread and develop strength. They began to be on a par with the Jews, but in addition to being more intelligent, civilised and influential; the Jewish people also had the upper hand in education and religious matters. The Aus and Khazraj were merely idol-worshippers and were generally uneducated. Hence, the Aus and Khazraj were deeply impressed by the Jews, so much so, that whenever an individual from the Aus or Khazraj was unable to give birth to a male child, he would vow that if a son was born to him, he would make him a Jew. As such, many people became Jews in this manner, and their strength grew day by day, to the extent that in vanity of their power, the Jews began to inflict an array of cruelties upon the Aus and Khazraj. Due to this, relations between the Jews, the Aus and Khazraj deteriorated substantially. Eventually, on account of their frustration, the latter tribes had the eminent leaders from among the Jews cunningly murdered with the assistance of the leader of the state of Ghassan. The inevitable outcome of this was that the Jews lost their strength, and the Aus and Khazraj attained supremacy in the city. However, another outcome which slowly but surely began to manifest itself after the Jews lost their strength, was that the Aus and Khazraj, who, until then had lived together in peace and harmony, due to their opposition of the Jews, now began to fight and quarrel amongst themselves. Ultimately, these civil wars took on such a vast and horrific state, that on account of being relentlessly slaughtered at the hands of one another, both tribes became very weak. The Jews – who were probably responsible for igniting the fire of this civil war – found another opportunity to gain strength. The outcome was that the Aus and Khazraj, once again, looked towards the Jewish tribes for support, and sought their aid in opposition to one another. As such, the Banu Qainuqa‘ allied with the Khazraj whereas the Banu Nadir and Banu Quraidah with the Aus. In this manner, the entire city became engulfed in the flames of a horrific civil war.

The people of Yathrib were in this very state of civil war, when – according to Divine command – the Holy Prophet(saw) made his claim to prophethood, in Makkah. As such, the last battle between the Aus and Khazraj – which is known as the Battle of Bu‘ath in Arab history – took place in the prophetic era of the Holy Prophet(saw), while he resided in Makkah. There was such immense carnage in this war, and so many people were killed from both parties, that as a last option, both the Aus and Khazraj were compelled to reconcile with one another. Hence, both tribes consulted each other and came to the agreement that in accordance with a few conditions, they would accept ‘Abdullah bin Ubaiyy bin Sulul, who was a renowned and intelligent chieftain from the Khazraj, to be their sole leader. Preparations for his formal coronation began. However, ‘Abdullah had yet to be decorated with the crown of leadership over the Aus and Khazraj when the voice of Islam reached Madinah, and the course of events took a new turn. It is for this reason that ‘Abdullah bin Ubaiyy considered the arrival of the Holy Prophet(saw) to Madinah as being one of a rival, who had snatched away his proposed crown of leadership over the Aus and Khazraj. Hence, the fire of jealousy and enmity began to burn in his heart. Moreover, since he did not possess the courage to openly stand up against the Holy Prophet(saw) in the opposition of his tribe, instead of opposing the Holy Prophet(saw) openly, he began to secretly conspire and oppose him. After the Battle of Badr, he apparently accepted Islam. However, his ailment of the heart could not be lessened, and this is the state in which he died.2

Arrival in Quba’ – 20 September 622 AD

After presenting a brief account of the state of affairs prevalent in Madinah and its inhabitants, we return to our actual subject. It has already been mentioned that when the Ansar heard of the arrival of the Holy Prophet(saw), the plain of Madinah began to echo with slogans proclaiming the Greatness of Allah. People quickly began to arrange their weapons, and eagerly made haste to the direction from which the Holy Prophet(saw) was arriving. This was a wonderful time. The Chief of Mankind, the Holy Chosen One of God, in whose person the message of prophethood was to reach its perfection – distressed by the persecution of his friends and relatives – left his homeland for a city, which in terms of worldly relations, was a city of strangers. Yet, God instilled such love into the hearts of these very strangers, that the love of blood relations seemed absolutely worthless in comparison. From that day, the fate of the Aus and Khazraj was so closely intertwined with the destiny of Islam, that it is impossible for any historian of the world to mention one without the other. These Bedouins of Arabia spent most of their time indulging in alcohol, adultery, gambling, and violence. There is no doubt that Islam raised them from the depths of a dark abyss of disgrace, to a most brilliant summit of prosperity. None have done a favour upon Islam, rather, it is every single Muslim who is subject to the favour of Islam. Nonetheless, it is also a historical fact that the selfless dedication with which these pioneer devotees of Islam sacrificed their lives, and the fervent love and passion with which they irrigated the delicate and young plant of Islam with the water of their blood, is unparalleled in the history of the world. However, I should return to my subject matter. When the Ansar laid eyes upon the Holy Prophet(saw), their faces lit up with joy, and they felt as if they had attained all the rewards of this world and the next, in the person of the Holy Prophet(saw). As such, there is a narration in Bukhari [the most authentic Book of Traditions of the Holy Prophet(saw) in Islam] related by Bara’ bin ‘Azib: “I have never seen the Ansar as happy as they were at the arrival of the Holy Prophet(saw) to Madinah, on any other occasion.” Tirmidhi and Ibni Majah [These are also amongst the six most authentic Book of Traditions in Islam] have related from Anas bin Malik that, “When the Holy Prophet(saw) arrived, we felt as if Madinah had become illuminated; and on the day that the Holy Prophet(saw) passed away, the city of Madinah never seemed darker.”3

After meeting the people who had come to receive him, the Holy Prophet(saw), due to a reason which history has not recorded, did not directly enter into the city. Instead, the Holy Prophet(saw) travelled out of his way to the right, and went to an elevated habitation named Quba’, which was situated at a distance of 2-2.5 miles from the city. Various families of the Ansar resided here; among them, the family of ‘Amr bin Al-‘Auf is distinct. In that era, Kulthum bin Al-Hadam was the chief of this family. The Ansar of Quba’ gave the Holy Prophet(saw) a very warm welcome. The Holy Prophet(saw) stayed in the home of Kulthum bin Al-Hadam. Those Muhajirin who had already reached Quba’ prior to the arrival of the Holy Prophet(saw), were residing in the home of Kulthum bin Al-Hadam and other nobles from among the Ansar. Perhaps this is the reason behind the Holy Prophet(saw) deciding to first stop in Quba’. In an instance, news of the arrival of the Holy Prophet(saw) spread throughout Madinah. All of the Muslims began to gather in troops at the residence of the Holy Prophet(saw) restlessly, in the fervour of their love. At that time, a strange occurrence took place, which alludes to the simplicity of the assembly of the Holy Prophet(saw). Among those people of Madinah who had not previously seen the Holy Prophet(saw), some mistakenly thought that Hadhrat Abu Bakr(ra), was the Messenger of Allah. However, it was only when the sun came out, and Hadhrat Abu Bakr(ra) shaded the Holy Prophet(saw) with his mantle, that this misunderstanding was resolved.4

The cause of this misunderstanding was that despite being younger in age, Hadhrat Abu Bakr(ra) apparently seemed older than the Holy Prophet(saw). Moreover, in comparison to the Holy Prophet(saw), much of his hair had become white; and since there was no formal seating arrangement in the assembly – nor was there any distinct seat for the Holy Prophet(saw) – those who were unaware, were temporarily misled.

There is a slight variance in the narrations which relate to the arrival of the Holy Prophet(saw) in Quba’, and the completion of the journey of migration. Historians generally believe that it was a Monday on the 12th of Rabi‘ul-Awwal 14 Nabawi. However, some scholars have written that it was the 8th. Other mathematicians are of the belief that, according to the Christian calendar system, it was the 20th of September 622.5

Masjid Quba was the first Mosque in Islam built by the Holy Prophet(saw) shortly after entering Madinah

The Islamic calendar begins from this event of migration. However, the year does not begin from Rabi‘ul-Awwal, which was the month of migration. Rather, it begins from Muharram, which is considered to be the first month of the lunar calendar. As such, the first year of Hijrah did not actually consist of 12 months, rather, only of nine months and some days. There is also a difference of opinion among the historians with relation to the era in which the Hijrah calendar system was formally instituted. Hakim has narrated in Iklil that the Holy Prophet(saw) initiated this calendar himself, after the migration.6

However, in light of other narrations, most historians believe (and this seems to be correct), that this calendar was formally initiated in the caliphate of Hadhrat ‘Umar(ra);7and Allah knows best.

Historians write that the first task which the Holy Prophet(saw) undertook in Quba’ was to erect a mosque. The Holy Prophet(saw) laid the foundation stone of this mosque with his own blessed hand. The companions worked together as labourers and builders. After a few days of hard work, the mosque was complete. The Holy Prophet(saw) possessed great love for this mosque, until the end of his life. As such, even after taking up residence in Madinah, the Holy Prophet(saw) would visit Quba’ every week, and offer Salat [Formal Prayer in Islam] in this mosque. Various scholars believe that this very mosque at Quba’ is the one which has been referred to in the following verse of the Holy Qur’an:

Which was founded upon piety from the very first day.8

There is no doubt that Muslims had erected various mosques prior to this as well. However, the mosque at Quba’ was indeed the first mosque in Islam, the foundation of which was laid at the hands of the Holy Prophet(saw), on the first day after the completion of the migration. Muslims built this mosque as a national place of worship.

It has already been mentioned that when the Holy Prophet(saw) emigrated from Makkah, he left Hadhrat ‘Ali(ra) in his place, and strictly instructed him to return everyone’s trusts, and quickly reach Madinah. As such, the Holy Prophet(saw) had only been in Quba’ for three days when Hadhrat ‘Ali(ra) also reached there, safely. However, until then the family members of the Holy Prophet(saw) were still in Makkah.

Arrival at Madinah and the First Friday Prayer

The Holy Prophet(saw) was perhaps still in Quba’ when the Muslims of Madinah began to discuss whose home the Holy Prophet(saw) would stay at. Every family desired the honour of hosting the Holy Prophet(saw). When the Holy Prophet(saw) heard of this disagreement, he said, “I will stay with the maternal relations of ‘Abdul-Muttalib, the Banu Najjar.”9

This was a very wise decision of the Holy Prophet(saw), whereby the possibility of unbecoming emotions of enmity arising amongst the various tribes was prevented. Everyone was satisfied with this decision of the Holy Prophet(saw). Although everyone was equivalent in faith and sincerity, the Banu Najjar definitely possessed the additional distinction that Salamah, the mother of ‘Abdul-Muttalib, who was the paternal grandfather of the Holy Prophet(saw), was from this family.

The Quba Mosque

After a stay of more than ten days10 in Quba’, on Friday, the Holy Prophet(saw) set out for the heart of the city. A large party from among the Ansar and Muhajirin accompanied the Holy Prophet(saw). The Holy Prophet(saw) was riding a camel, and Hadhrat Abu Bakr(ra) was behind him. Slowly but surely, this caravan slowly began to advance towards the city. The time for Friday prayers arrived en-route. The Holy Prophet(saw) stopped in the neighborhood of the Banu Salim bin Auf. He delivered a sermon to his Companions, and led the Friday Prayer. Historians write that, although the Friday Prayer had already begun11, this was the first prayer service which the Holy Prophet(saw) led himself.12 After this, the Friday Prayer service formally began. In actuality, Friday is an ‘Id for the Salat, just as ‘Idul-Fitr is the ‘Id for the fasting of Ramadan, and ‘Idul-Adha is the ‘Id for Hajj. It is for this reason that the Friday Prayer has been given great significance in the Islamic Shari‘at [Law]. In this service, the Imam delivers a sermon in which matters of current relevance are discussed. The congregation is exhorted with regards to faith and good deeds, and after this, two Rak‘ats [units] of obligatory prayer are offered. The Holy Prophet(saw) would also instruct that on Friday, every Muslim should, as much as possible, bathe, wear clean clothes, use fragrance, and reach the mosque before the sermon begins. In remembrance, a mosque named Masjidul-Jumu‘ah has now been built at the place where the Holy Prophet(saw) led this first Friday Prayer service.

After completing the Friday Prayers, the caravan of the Holy Prophet(saw) continued to slowly proceed further. When the Holy Prophet(saw) would pass by the homes of Muslims, in the fervour of their love they would move forward and say, “O Messenger of Allah! This is our home. Our wealth and lives are at your behest. We also possess means of protection. Please stay with us.” The Holy Prophet(saw) would supplicate for their prosperity and slowly moved towards the city. In the fervour of their happiness, the Muslim ladies and girls climbed the roofs of their homes and began singing:

“Today, the full moon has risen upon us from the valleys of Mount Wada‘;13 For this reason, gratitude to Allah has become forever obligatory upon us.”14

The Muslim children ran about in the streets and alleys of Madinah singing, “Muhammad (saw) has arrived. The Messenger of Allah has arrived.” To express their happiness upon the arrival of the Holy Prophet(saw), the Abyssinian slaves of Madinah would move about demonstrating their feats of swordsmanship. When the Holy Prophet(saw) entered the city, every individual desired that the Holy Prophet(saw) stay with them. Each and every person would advance to offer their services. The Holy Prophet(saw) would respond lovingly to everyone, and move forward until his she-camel reached the neighborhood of the Banu Najjar. At this place, the people of Banu Najjar stood in rows, decorated with arms to welcome the Holy Prophet(saw). The girls of this tribe were reciting the following couplet whilst beating their drums:

“We are girls of the Banu Najjar; how fortunate are we that Muhammad (saw) the Messenger of Allah (saw), has come to stay in our neighbourhood.”

When the Holy Prophet(saw) reached the Banu Najjar, the question once again posed itself as to which person the Holy Prophet(saw) would stay with. Every individual of the tribe was desirous that they be the one to receive this honour. As a matter of fact, in the fervour of their love, some would even take hold of the reins of the camel belonging to the Holy Prophet(saw). Upon seeing this, the Holy Prophet(saw) said, “Leave my camel, for at this time, it has been divinely inspired.” In other words, wherever Allah so desired it would sit down itself; and upon saying this, the Holy Prophet(saw) also released its reins. The camel gracefully advanced and sat down when it reached the place where, later, the Masjidun-Nabawi, and living quarters of the Holy Prophet(saw), were built. At the time, this was an uncultivated plot of land, which was the property of two children from Madinah. Immediately, however, it stood up and began to move forward; but after a few steps, it once again returned to its initial place of resting, and sat down. The Holy Prophet(saw) stated:

“It seems as if the Will of Allah desires that this be our place of residence.”15

After this, the Holy Prophet(saw) supplicated to Allah and dismounted from his camel. Then the Holy Prophet(saw) inquired as to whose home was closest from that place. Abu Ayyub  Ansari(ra) rushed forward and said, “O Messenger of Allah! It is mine, and this is the entrance to my home. You are most welcome.” The Holy Prophet(saw) said, “Alright, then go and prepare a place for me to stay.”16

Residence at the Home of Abu Ayyub

Abu Ayyub  Ansari(ra) immediately prepared his home and returned. The Holy Prophet(saw) proceeded inside along with him. This was a two-story home. Abu Ayyub(ra) desired that the Holy Prophet(saw) should stay on the top floor. However, taking into consideration the ease of those people who would come to visit, the Holy Prophet(saw) preferred the ground-floor and resided there. At nightfall, Abu Ayyub(ra) and his wife could not sleep all night in the thought that the Holy Prophet(saw) was beneath them, and they were above him. In addition to this, it so happened that during the night a pale of water broke on the roof. In his fear, Abu Ayyub(ra) quickly placed his quilt over the water to dry it, in order to prevent even a single droplet of water from seeping through to the ground floor. In the morning, he presented himself before the Holy Prophet(saw), and implored the Holy Prophet(saw) to stay on the top floor. At first, the Holy Prophet(saw) hesitated, but upon witnessing the insistence of Abu Ayyub(ra), he agreed. The Holy Prophet(saw) stayed in this home for seven months, or according to Ibni Ishaq, he remained here until the month of Safr 2 A.H. In other words, the Holy Prophet(saw) remained here until the construction of Masjidun-Nabawi [the Prophet’s Mosque], and the adjacent living-quarters of the Holy Prophet(saw). Abu Ayyub(ra) would present food to the Holy Prophet(saw), and then, whatever would remain of it, he would eat himself. Due to his love and sincerity, he would eat from where the Holy Prophet(saw) had taken his food.17

Other companions would also present food to the Holy Prophet(saw). As such, among these people the name of Sa‘d bin ‘Ubadah – chieftain of the Khazraj tribe – has been mentioned particularly in history. Anas bin Malik was a ten year old orphan of Madinah. His mother, Ummi Salamah, who was very sincere, brought him to the Holy Prophet(saw), and said, “O Messenger of Allah! I present Anas in your service. Kindly pray for him and accept him so that he may serve you.” The Holy Prophet(saw) supplicated for his prosperity, and accepted him in his service. After this, Anas bin Malik began to live in service of the Holy Prophet(saw), and did not depart from this service until the demise of the Holy Prophet(saw). This is the same Anas(ra) on whose authority many narrations have been related in the books of Ahadith. He was from among the distinct Companions of the Holy Prophet(saw). Anas(ra) was blessed with a long life and passed away in 91 A.H., or 93 A.H., at Basra, when there was perhaps only one or two other Companions alive at the time. In his last days, he would often say that,

“Due to the prayer of the Holy Prophet(saw), my wealth and progeny were blessed more than I could imagine. Now I am only waiting for his prayer regarding paradise to be fulfilled in my favour.”

Shortly after reaching Madinah, the Holy Prophet(saw) sent Zaid bin Harithah(ra) to Makkah with some money. In a few days, he returned safely to Madinah with the family of the Holy Prophet(saw), and his own. Along with him, ‘Abdullah bin Abi Bakr also brought the family of Hadhrat Abu Bakr(ra) to Madinah as well.

CONTINUES IN THE NEXT EDITION

ENDNOTES

  1. 1.  * Sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabu Manaqibil-Ansari, Babu Maqdamin-Nabiyyi(saw) wa Ashabihil-Madinah, Hadith No. 3926
    * As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, By Abu Muhammad ‘Abdul-Malik bin Hisham, pp. 404-405, Dhikru Man I‘talla min Ashabihi Rasulillah(saw), Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (2001)
    * Tarikhul-Khamis fi Ahwali Anfasi Nafis, By Husain bin Muhammad bin Hasan, Volume 1, p. 350, Wa‘ku Abi Bakrin was-Sahabati, Mu’assasatu Sha‘ban, Beirut
  2. Details of Madinah and its inhabitants are derived from:
    * Mu‘jamul-Buldan, By Shihabud-Din Abi ‘Abdillahi Yaqut bin ‘Abdillah, Volume 4, pp. 227-228, Madinatu Yathrib, Daru Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon
    * Ar-Raudul-Unufi fi Tafsiris-Siratin-Nabawiyyati libni Hisham, By Abul-Qasim ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Abdillah bin Ahmad, Volume 2, pp. 346-347, Mata Dakhalal-Yahudu Yathrib, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition
    * Al-Kamilu fit-Tarikh (Tarikhu Ibnil-Athir), By ‘Izzud-Din Abul-Hasan ‘Ali bin Muhammad Ibnul-Athir, pp. 182-183, Ayyamul-Ansari wa humul-Ausu wal-Khazraj….., Baitul-Afkarid-Dauliyyati, Riyad, Saudi Arabia
  3. Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, Volume 2, p. 165, Khatimatu fi Waqa’i‘i Mutafarriqatin Hasalat fil-Hijrati….., Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
  4. Sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabu Manaqibil-Ansari, Babu Hijratin-Nabiyyi(saw) wa Ashabihi ilal-Madinah, Hadith No. 3906
  5. At-Taufiqatul-Ilhamiyyatu fi Muqaranatit-Tawarikhil-Hijriyyati, By Muhammad Mukhtar Pasha, p. 33, Sanatu 1 Hijriyyah, Mu’assasatul-‘Arabiyyah, First Edition (1980)
  6. Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, Volume 2, pp. 152-153, Khatimatu fi Waqa’i‘i Mutafarriqatin Hasalat fil-Hijrati….., Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
  7. Tarikhur-Rusuli wal-Muluk (Tarikhut-Tabari), By Abu Ja‘far Muhammad bin Jarir At-Tabari, Volume 3, p. 3, Dhikrul-Waqtilladhi ‘Umila fihit-Tarikh, Darul-Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon, Second Edition (2002)
  8. “…Which was founded upon piety from the very first day.” (At-Taubah, Ch.9:V.108)
  9. Sahihul-Muslim, Kitabuz-Zuhdi war-Raqa’iqi, Babu fi Hadithil-Hijrah, Hadith No. 7522
  10. Sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabu Manaqibil-Ansari, Babu Hijratin-Nabiyyi(saw) wa Ashabihi ilal-Madinah, Hadith No. 3906
  11. Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitabul-Jumu‘ati, Babul-Jumu‘ati fil-Qura’, Hadith No. 1069
  12. As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, By Abu Muhammad ‘Abdul-Malik bin Hisham, p. 349, Hijratur-Rasuli(saw) Khurujuhu min Quba’ wa Safaruhu ilal-Madinah, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (2001)
  13. Wada‘ is the name of a mount or in light of various narrations, the name of various mounts.
  14. Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, Volume 2, p. 165, Khatimatu fi Waqa’i‘i Mutafarriqatin Hasalat fil-Hijrati….., Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
  15. * Sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabu Manaqibil-Ansari, Babu Hijratin-Nabiyyi(saw) wa Ashabihi ilal-Madinah, Hadith No. 3906 – Note: Bukhari has not mentioned the account of the camel in such detail.  However, it has mentioned that the camel sat down by itself where the mosque was later built, upon which the Holy Prophet(saw) stated, ‘This is our residence.’
    * The remaining details are derived from books of Sirat – For example, Al-Bidayatu wan-Nihayatu, By Abul-Fida’ Hafiz Ibnu Kathir Ad-Dimashqi, Volume 3, p. 210, Sanatu 1 Hijri, Faslun fi Dukhulihi ‘alaihis-salamul-Madinata wa aina Istaqarra….., Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (2001)
  16. *Sahihul-Muslim
    * As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, By Abu Muhammad ‘Abdul-Malik bin Hisham
  17. * Sahihul-Muslim, Kitabul-Ashribah, Babu Ibahati Aklith-Thaum….., Hadith No. 5358
    * As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, By Abu Muhammad ‘Abdul-Malik bin Hisham, p. 352, Hijratur-Rasuli(saw) Manziluhu min Baiti Abi Ayyub, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (2001)
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