The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophets(saw) – Volume IINo Comments | June 2012
NEW AND EXCLUSIVE
Translated from the Urdu by Ayyaz Mahmood Khan
Construction of Masjidun-Nabawi
Upon arriving in Madinah, the first task was the construction of Masjidun-Nabawi. The place where the camel of the Holy Prophet(saw) chose to rest, was the property of two children from Madinah named Sahl and Suhail, who lived in the guardianship of Hadhrat As‘ad bin Zurarah(ra). This was a vacant land, on which a few date palms had been planted in one area. In another area, there were ruins etc. The Holy Prophet(saw) selected this plot to construct the Masjidun-Nabawi, and his own living quarters. This plot of land was purchased for 10 Dinar, or approximately 90 Rupees. The surface was levelled and cleared of trees, after which the construction of Masjidun-Nabawi began. The Holy Prophet(saw) supplicated to Allah, and laid the foundation stone himself. Just as in the construction of the mosque at Quba’, the Companions worked as builders and labourers. The Holy Prophet(saw) would also participate at times. Occasionally, while lifting bricks, the Companions would recite the following couplet of ‘Abdullah bin Rawahah(ra):
“This burden is not the burden of Khaibar’s commercial goods, which arrive loaded on the backs of animals; Rather, O our Lord! This is the burden of virtue and purity, which we bear for your pleasure.”
At times, the Companions would recite the following couplet of ‘Abdullah bin Rawahah(ra):
“O Our Allah! True reward is merely that of the hereafter. By Your Grace, send down Mercy upon the Ansar and Muhajirin.”
When the Companions would recite this couplet, at times, the Holy Prophet(saw) would also join in. In this manner, after a long period of hard work, the mosque was completed.1
The structure of the mosque was made from slabs and bricks, which were assembled between wooden pillars. The roof was covered by trunks and branches of date palms. Trunks of date palms were placed inside the mosque to support the roof. Until the building of a pulpit was proposed, the Holy Prophet(saw) would lean upon one of these trunks when delivering his sermon. The floor of the mosque was unpaved, and since the roof would leak after heavy rainfall, the floor of the mosque would become muddy. As such, in light of this difficulty, later on a floor of gravel was paved. Initially, the direction of the mosque was towards Baitul-Maqdas, but after the alteration of the Qiblah, this orientation was changed. At that time, the height of the mosque was 10 feet, the length was 105 feet, and the width was 90 feet. Later on, however, this was extended.
One corner of the mosque, a veranda was built, which was referred to as Suffah. This was for those destitute Muhajirin who were homeless. These people would stay here, and were known as the Ashabus-Suffah. As such, they would remain in the company of the Holy Prophet(saw) day and night, perform worship, and recite the Holy Qur’an. These people possessed no means of permanent subsistence. The Holy Prophet(saw) would take care of them personally and whenever the Holy Prophet(saw) would receive a gift, etc., or there was something available at home, he would especially separate their share. As a matter of fact, at times, the Holy Prophet(saw) would himself starve and send whatever was in his home to the Ashabus-Suffah. The Ansar would also remain engaged in their hospitality in as much as possible, and would often attach clusters of dates within the mosque.2
However, despite all this, they lived in a state of adversity, and would often reach a state of starvation. This state continued until some found work, due to the expansion of Madinah, and others began receiving support from the National Baitul-Mal [State treasury].
A place of residence was constructed for the Holy Prophet(saw) adjacent to the mosque. His home was a small chamber of merely ten to fifteen feet. A single entrance led from this chamber to the mosque, from which the Holy Prophet(saw) would enter the mosque to lead the Salat, etc. When the number of his wives increased, the Holy Prophet(saw)’s additional living quarters were also built alongside the first. The homes of various other Companions were also built in close proximity of the mosque.
This was the Masjidun-Nabawi, which was constructed in Madinah. In that era, since there was no other public building where tasks of national importance could be performed, the mosque also served as the headquarters of administration. The assembly of the Holy Prophet(saw) would take place here. It was here that all types of consultation took place. Legal verdicts were passed from here. It was from here that injunctions would be issued forth. This was the official guesthouse and, if required, it would be used as a confinement for prisoners as well.
Alluding to this mosque, Sir William Muir writes:
“But though rude in material, and insignificant in dimensions, the Mosque of Mohammad [saw] is glorious in the history of Islam. Here the Prophet and his Companions spent most of their time: here the daily service, with its oft-recurring prayers was first publicly established: and here the great congregation assembled every Friday, listening with reference and awe to messages from heaven. Here the Prophet planned his victories; here he received embassies from vanquished and contrite tribes; and from hence issued edicts which struck terror among the rebellious to the very outskirts of the Peninsula. Hard by, in the apartment of ‘A’isha, he yielded up the ghost; and there, side by side with his first two Successors, he lies entombed.”3
This mosque and its adjoining chambers were constructed in a period of seven months, more or less. The Holy Prophet(saw) took up residence in his new home along with his wife Hadhrat Saudah(ra). Various other Muhajirin also acquired land from the Ansar, and built homes in close proximity to the mosque. Those who could not obtain land near the mosque constructed their homes at a distance from the mosque. Others were fortunate enough to procure pre-constructed houses from the Ansar.
Commencement of Adhan [Call to Prayer]
Until now there was no arrangement for a call to Salat [formal Prayer], in other words, Adhan etc. The Companions would generally congregate in the mosque at the approximate time themselves. These state of affairs, however, were not satisfactory. Upon the construction of Masjidun-Nabawi, the question as to how Muslims should be congregated at the appropriate time was felt even more. One Companion proposed the use of a bell, like the Christians. Someone proposed the use of a trumpet, like the Jews; and others made other suggestions. However, Hadhrat ‘Umar(ra) proposed that an individual be appointed to announce that it is time for Salat at the appointed time. The Holy Prophet(saw) approved this proposal, and appointed Hadhrat Bilal(ra) to perform this duty.4
As such, after this, when the time for Salat would arrive, Hadhrat Bilal(ra) would announce in a loud voice [“the Salat is about to be held in congregation”]5 and people would congregate for the Salat. As a matter of fact, the very same call would be made if it was necessary to congregate the Muslims in the mosque for a purpose other than the Salat as well. Sometime afterwards, the words of the current Adhan [call to Prayer] were taught to a Companion named ‘Abdullah bin Zaid Ansari(ra), in a dream. He presented himself before the Holy Prophet(saw) and mentioned this dream saying, “I saw an individual in my dream call out such and such words as if calling the Adhan.” The Holy Prophet(saw) said, “This dream is from Allah,” and instructed ‘Abdullah(ra) to teach these words to Bilal(ra). A strange coincidence was that when Bilal(ra) called out the Adhan in these words for the very first time, upon hearing them, Hadhrat ‘Umar(ra) made haste to the Holy Prophet(saw): he said,
“O Messenger of Allah! Today, the words in which Bilal(ra) called out the Adhan were exactly those which I also saw in my dream.”6
In one narration it has also been related that when the Holy Prophet(saw) heard these words of the Adhan, he said, “Revelation has already been sent down as such.”7
Therefore, in this manner, the current method of Adhan commenced. The method which commenced in this manner is so blessed and attractive that no other method can compare to it. In other words, the Unity of God, and the Prophethood of Muhammad(saw) – the Messenger of Allah – is proclaimed five times daily from every mosque, in every village, of every city in the Islamic world. A summary of Islamic teachings is conveyed to the people in extremely beautiful and comprehensive words.
Increase in the Rak‘aat of Salat
It has already been mentioned that the Salat, which is considered to be the most significant worship in Islam, had already been ordained in Makkah. However, aside from the Maghrib [evening] prayer which consisted of three Rak‘aat [units], all of the other compulsory prayers consisted of two Rak‘aat. Sometime after the migration however, in accordance with Divine command, while the same two Rak‘aat remained for Salat offered on journey, the number of Rak‘aat for Salat offered in a state of fixed residence was increased to four Rak‘aat each, except for Fajr [early morning] and Maghrib prayer. In this manner, a distinction was drawn between Salat offered on a journey, and in a state of fixed residence. A distinct feature of the teaching brought by the Holy Prophet(saw) is that a middle course has been taken in all of its injunctions. All of those practical difficulties have been taken into account, which continue to pose themselves in the life of an individual. As such, there are many injunctions even in matters of Salat, which change based on differing circumstances. For example, the distinction between Salat offered on a journey and in a state of fixed residence has just been mentioned. In addition to this, it is necessary to maintain the apparent form of Salat in normal circumstances. However, an individual who cannot offer the Salat in its prescribed form due to an illness, etc., is permitted to forgo its apparent form and offer his Salat whilst sitting, or if this is difficult as well, even whilst lying down. Similarly, it is compulsory to face the Ka‘bah during Salat. Despite this however, when a person is on journey and he is unable to ascertain the direction upon his means of conveyance, or if it is difficult to maintain direction, Islam permits such an individual to offer his Salat in the direction of his conveyance. Similarly, it is necessary to perform ablution in the prescribed manner for the Salat. However, an individual who cannot obtain water, or is at a risk of contracting an illness if he performs ablution, is permitted to leave it, etc.
Similarly, whenever a reasonable and practical difficulty presents itself, Islam appropriately alters the form of its injunctions and presents another alternative. This demonstrates that firstly, the message of Islam possesses universal dimensions, which fully takes varying circumstances into account. Secondly, the true essence of the Islamic Shari‘at – the spirit of worship and its physical form – has only been prescribed to sustain and protect the spirit. It is for this reason that whenever it becomes difficult to maintain the physical form due to a change in circumstances, the physical form is abandoned, and the spirit is maintained.
At this occasion, it would not be out of place to mention that of all the Islamic forms of worship, the Holy Prophet(saw) has laid most emphasis on Salat. The Holy Prophet(saw) would state that, “Salat is the Mi‘raj8 of a believer.” Moreover, he would state that Salat is such a form of worship, in which a servant converses with God and reaches the assembly of Allah, as it were. The Holy Prophet(saw) possessed such a deep love for Salat, that in addition to the Five Daily Prayers, which were of course compulsory, the Holy Prophet(saw) would offer voluntary Salat in great abundance as well. The Holy Prophet(saw) was so fond of the Tahajjud Prayer, i.e. the late night prayer, that the Holy Prophet(saw) would wake up to regularly to offer this prayer without fail. It has been narrated that the Holy Prophet(saw) would stand in the Tahajjud Prayer for so long that at times his feet would become swollen. The Holy Prophet(saw) would often say, “Salat is the delight of my eyes.” He would exhort his Companions to offer prayer saying, “If people knew the reward for offering Salat in congregation, even if they were compelled to crawl to the mosque upon their knees, they would do so.” In his terminal illness, when the Holy Prophet(saw) would repeatedly become unconscious and was in a state of extreme anxiety, one morning he lifted the covering which veiled his entrance, and saw the Companions offering their morning Salat in the mosque. Upon witnessing this sight, the countenance of the Holy Prophet(saw) lit up with such immense pleasure, as if a flower which had withered away was once again immediately restored to full bloom. Then, in some narrations it has been related that the last words which were heard upon the tongue of the Holy Prophet(saw) were, “O People of my community! Do not be unmindful of my teaching with respect to Salat and slaves.”9
First Muslim From Among the Jews
Among those who had become Muslim until now, there were perhaps a few Christians who had converted, but there were no Jewish converts yet. Nonetheless, after the migration, this course of events also began, and although very few people from among the Jews accepted the Holy Prophet(saw) in his lifetime, this nation did not remain entirely deprived. The very first Jew who was honoured by accepting Islam was Husain bin Salam. This individual was a resident of Madinah, and possessed great influence among the Jews on account of his knowledge and wisdom. The Holy Prophet(saw) was still in Madinah when this individual heard of his claim, and began to feel inclined towards Islam. Until now however, he had not revealed his inner state to anyone. When the Holy Prophet(saw) arrived in Madinah, this individual presented himself before the Holy Prophet(saw) in secret, and since he possessed a virtuous disposition, became Muslim in his very first meeting. After becoming Muslim, he felt a deep longing that the people of his tribe should not remain deprived of the light which illuminated his own heart. Therefore, he requested the Holy Prophet(saw) to invite the eminent leaders from among the Jews and convey the message of Islam to them. He further requested the Holy Prophet(saw) to inquire of them as to what opinion they held of him, and how they perceived him, so that if they expressed a positive opinion with respect to him, perhaps his acceptance of Islam would become a source of guidance for them. As such, Husain bin Salam hid to one side, and the Holy Prophet(saw) invited the leaders from among the Jews, and conveyed the message of Islam to them. They did not accept. Then, the Holy Prophet(saw) inquired of their opinion with regards to Husain bin Salam, upon which they greatly praised his knowledge and wisdom, and said that he was their chief, and the son of a chief, etc. The Holy Prophet(saw) said, “Look here, if he becomes a Muslim, would you be prepared to accept Islam?” They responded, “We seek refuge with Allah! It can never happen that Husain becomes a Muslim.” The Holy Prophet(saw) summoned Husain, and he came out of hiding. He addressed the Jewish leaders saying, “O my people! Fear God and do not invite the punishment of Allah upon yourselves. You are well aware that Muhammad (saw) has been mentioned in your Book and he is the same Prophet who was promised to you. So fear God, and do not step towards rejection.” At first these Jewish people were extraordinarily confounded. Then they began to say, “We do not believe Husain. He is a fabricator and a great liar.” Thereafter, they left the assembly of the Holy Prophet(saw), cursing Husain bin Salam.
After Husain became a Muslim, the Holy Prophet(saw) changed his name to ‘Abdullah, and this is the name that he is known by in accounts of history and Ahadith. In actuality, it was the custom of the Holy Prophet(saw) that when an individual would become Muslim, he would generally leave that person’s name unchanged. However, if a person’s name was polytheistic, the Holy Prophet(saw) would change it. The name of Husain bin Salam was not polytheistic, but perhaps the Holy Prophet(saw) thought it was appropriate to change his name to a purely Muslim one, since this individual was the first Muslim convert from among the Jews.
First Muslim From Among the People of Persia
It was approximately in this era that Salman(ra) the Persian, became Muslim. Salman was a resident of the country of Persia, and was originally a follower of the Zoroastrian religion. His inherent virtue, however, did not allow him to feel satisfied with the current state of that religion. He left his country in search of a better religion, and eventually reached Syria, where he became a Christian. It was in this era that he was made a slave during a plunder, but this very slavery became the means of his accepting Islam. After an exchange of numerous masters, finally an individual of Madinah purchased him and kept him. As such, when the Holy Prophet(saw) arrived in Madinah, Salman(ra) presented himself before the Holy Prophet(saw), and became a Muslim. Thereafter, he gradually arranged for the money, and obtained freedom from his master. The very first time he participated in Jihad, was in the Battle of the Ditch. It was upon his proposal that a ditch was dug. Salman(ra) was an extremely pure and virtuous man, and lived a very ascetic lifestyle. Once a person inquired as to the name of his father, to which he responded with great simplicity, “I am the son of Islam.” On one occasion, the Holy Prophet(saw) said10, “Salman is from among us, that is, the Ahlul-Bait.11” On one occasion, when the Qur’anic verse was revealed that an era would come when a community like the Companions would be born, who would be the true bearers of their teaching, the Companions inquired, “O Messenger of Allah! Who are these people?” Upon this, the Holy Prophet(saw) placed his hand on the shoulder of Salman (ra) the Persian and said, “Even if faith ascends to the distant star of the Palaidies, an individual from among the people of Persia would establish it in the world once again.”12
Non-Muslim Leaders of the Aus and Khazraj
It has already been mentioned that until now, there were many people from among the Aus and Khazraj in Madinah, who had not yet become Muslim. Rather, they were firm upon their religion just as before. Two people from among them were considered to be especially distinct and revered. ‘Abdullah bin Ubaiyy bin Sulul, chieftain of the Khazraj tribe, has already been mentioned before, as to how he initially remained disassociated with Islam. However, he later apparently become a Muslim, but remained a secret enemy of Islam, and became the chieftain of the hypocrites of Madinah. The second individual was Abu ‘Amir, who was chieftain of the Aus tribe. He had been a traveller in the early period of his life, after visiting many countries, he became a recluse, and was referred to as a monk. Abu ‘Amir was somewhat inclined towards Christianity and claimed to be an independent religious teacher. Upon the arrival of the Holy Prophet(saw), he began to oppose him, and eventually left Madinah for Makkah, burning in his malice and envy. Those few people who were under his influence also left Madinah along with him. At the Battle of Uhud, Abu ‘Amir entered the field of battle on behalf of the Makkans. An astonishing manifestation of Divine power is that in this very war, his son Hanzalah, who was an extremely sincere Muslim, was martyred fighting on behalf of the Muslims. Abu ‘Amir remained in Makkah until the Victory of Makkah. After the Victory of Makkah he moved to Ta’if. When Ta’if was conquered at the hands of the Companions as well, he went to Syria with the intent of conspiring against the Muslims with the Roman Empire. However, he could not succeed in his plan. When Abu ‘Amir was in Madinah, he would refer to the Holy Prophet(saw) as Tarid and Wahid (i.e., a man who has been exiled from his homeland and left alone), in an attempt to disgrace and degrade him. However, ultimately, it was he who suffered the fate of dying in a state of exile, weakness and helplessness, whilst wandering about in Syria.13
Brotherhood of the Ansar and Muhajirin
In that era, the Muslims of Madinah were divided into two groups. One was of those who were not residents of Madinah; rather, they had migrated from Makkah or another place and settled in Madinah. On account of their migration, these people were referred to as Muhajirin. The second group was of those who were residents of Madinah. Since these people had afforded protection to the Holy Prophet(saw) as well as to other Muhajirin, and since they had taken it upon themselves to assist them, for this reason they were referred to as the Ansar. The Muhajirin in Madinah were generally in a state of complete destitution, because the indigent were of course in a difficult state, but even the wealthy Muhajirin generally migrated, leaving all of their wealth and property behind. The Ansar treated them with even greater kindness than blood brothers. Nevertheless, in order to further strengthen this relationship of brotherhood, the Holy Prophet(saw) proposed that all of the Ansar and Muhajirin gather at the home of Anas bin Malik(ra). Taking mutual suitability in to account, the Holy Prophet(saw) established a formal bond of brotherhood between ninety people, more or less. The love, sincerity and loyalty with which both parties acted upon this brotherhood puts to shame even the blood brotherhood of today. What to talk of brotherhood, these Ansar and Muhajirin were as if two figures of the same being. Presenting themselves before the Holy Prophet(saw), the first request made by these Ansar after this relationship of brotherhood was formed, was that: “The Holy Prophet(saw) should divide our orchards between our brothers and us.” However, the Muhajirin were generally merchants by profession, and they were completely inexperienced in agriculture. As a matter of fact, the people of Makkah did not even like this work. Therefore, the Ansar themselves proposed that, “We will manage and work on these orchards, but the Muhajirin will receive a portion of its profit.”14
As such, this continued until the businesses of the Muhajirin which they had taken up in Madinah, began to flourish, and they also developed their own properties, and so the assistance of the Ansar was no longer required.15 It is written that when the Muhajirin witnessed this extraordinary kindness and affection of the Ansar, they greatly praised this treatment before the Holy Prophet(saw) and said, “O Messenger of Allah! upon witnessing this virtue of the Ansar, we fear that they may take all of our reward.” “Nay! Nay!” said the Holy Prophet(saw), “Until you remain grateful of this virtue of the Ansar and supplicate before God in their favour, you cannot remain deprived of reward.”16 Hadhrat ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf(ra) was made a brother to Sa‘d bin Ar-Rabi‘ Ansari(ra). Sa‘d(ra) calculated all of his wealth and property and presented it to ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf(ra). In the fervour of his love, he even said that, “I have two wives. I shall divorce one, and when she completes her prescribed period, you can marry her.” This was the fervour of love expressed uncontrollably by Sa‘d(ra), for both knew that this was not possible. Hence, ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf(ra) thanked him and prayed for him saying, “May Allah make all of this blessed for you, just tell me the way to the marketplace.” As such, ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf(ra) began to do business and since he was a remarkably intelligent and prudent man, slowly his business prospered, and ultimately he became a very rich and wealthy man. His business was still in its initial stage, and much time had not passed since his arrival in Madinah, when he married a young Ansari lady from Madinah. When the Holy Prophet(saw) saw the colour of saffron on his clothes, which in the Arab tradition was a sign of marriage, he smiled and said, “Ibni ‘Auf, what is this?” “O Messenger of Allah!” responded Sa‘d(ra), “I have married a young lady.” The Holy Prophet(saw) asked, “What have you given as a dowry.” ‘Abdur-Rahman(ra) responded, “O Messenger of Allah! I have given gold equivalent to the size of a date-stone.” The Holy Prophet(saw) said: “Now it is necessary to offer a wedding feast, even if it is limited to the meat of a single goat.” That is to say, now your financial status is no longer such that you merely invite one or two friends, and consider that you have performed your duty in holding a wedding feast. Rather, at least the meat of one goat should be prepared in the feast.17
This system of brotherhood even affected inheritance. Therefore, it was decided that if an Ansari passed away, his Muhajir brother would also receive a portion of the inheritance according to his share. This mutual understanding remained until the Battle of Badr, after which this form of inheritance was prohibited by Allah in accordance with Divine revelation, and only biological relations were deemed to be inheritors.18 In this brotherhood, Hadhrat Abu Bakr(ra) became the brother of Kharijah bin Zaid(ra), Hadhrat ‘Umar(ra) of ‘Utban bin Malik(ra), Hadhrat ‘Uthman(ra) of ‘Aus bin Thabit(ra), Abu ‘Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah(ra) of Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh(ra), Sa‘id bin Zaid(ra) of Ubaiyy bin Ka‘b(ra), Salman(ra), the Persian to Abu Darda’(ra), Mus‘ab bin ‘Umair(ra) of Abu Ayyub Ansari(ra), ‘Ammar bin Yasir(ra) of Hudhaifah bin Yaman(ra), and the list goes on.
This system of brotherhood proved to be beneficial and blessed in many respects:
FIRSTLY: The concern and anxiety which could have developed in the hearts of the Muhajirin, due to their state of being destitute in a foreign land, was prevented to a great extent.
SECONDLY: The possibility of distress on account of being separated from relatives and loved ones was prevented by the attainment of these new spiritual relatives, who were ones to exhibit more love and loyalty than even biological relations.
THIRDLY: The love and unity which was required in those days between the Ansar and Muhajirin from a religious, political, and civil perspective was strengthened.
FOURTHLY: A means of support and sustenance was made available to indigent and unemployed Muhajirin.
CONTINUES IN THE NEXT EDITION
- * Sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabu Manaqibil-Ansari, Babu Hijratin-Nabiyyi(saw) wa Ashabihi ilal-Madinah, Hadith No. 3906
* Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, Vol. 2, pp. 175-180, Dhikru Bina’il-Masjidin-Nabawi wa ‘Amalil-Minbar….., Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
- Sunanut-Tirmidhi, Kitabu Tafsiril-Qur’an, Babu Wa min Suratil-Baqarah, Hadith No. 2987
- Life of Mahomet, By Sir William Muir, Chapter VIII, The Mosque, how used, p. 186, Smith, Elder & Co., London, 1878 Edition
- Sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabul-Adhan, Babu Bad’il-Adhan, Hadith No. 604
- Meaning, ‘The Salat is about to be held in congregation.’ (Publishers)
- A detailed account can be found in:
* Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitabus-Salah, Babu Bad’il-Adhan, Hadith No. 498
* Sunan At-Tirmidhi, Kitabus-Salah, Babu Ma Ja’a fi Bad’il-Adhan, Hadith No. 189
* Sunan Ibni Majah, Kitabul-Adhan, Babu Bad’il-Adhan, Hadith No. 706
A brief account can be found in: Al-Muwatta, By Imam Malik bin Anas, Kitabus-Salah, Babu Ma Ja’a fin-Nida’I lis-salati, Hadith No. 149
- Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, Vol. 2, p. 201, Babu Bad’il-Adhan, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
- The word literally means, ‘ascension’ but in this context, refers to the spiritual apex of a believer. That is to say that Salat is the means by which a believer attains the highest point of his spiritual perfection. (Publishers)
- All of these references are derived from authentic books of Hadith:
* Mafatihul-Ghaib (At-Tafsirul-Kabir), By Imam Fakhruddin Muhammad bin ‘Umar Ar-Razi, Vol. 1, p. 214, Al-Kalamu fi Tafsiri Majmu‘I hadhis-Surah, Al-Faslul-Awwal, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, Second Edition (2004)
* Sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabus-Salah, Babu Hakkil-Buzaqi bil-Yadi minal-Masjid, Hadith No. 405
* Sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabut-Tahajjud, Babu Qiyamin-Nabiyyi(saw) bil-Laili hatta Tarima Qadamahu, Hadith No. 1130
* Sunan An-Nasa’i, Kitabu ‘Ishratin-Nisa’I, Babu Hubbin-Nisa’I, Hadith No. 3940
* Sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabul-Adhan, Babul-Istihami fil-Adhan, Hadith No. 615
* Sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabul-Adhan, Babu Ahlil-‘Ilmi wal-Fadli Ahaqqu bil-Imamati, Hadith No. 680
* Sunan Ibni Majah, Kitabul-Jana’iz, Babu Ma Ja’a fi Dhikri Maradi Rasulillahi(saw), Hadith No. 1625
- At-Tabaqatul-Kubra’, By Muhammad bin Sa‘d, Vol. 4, p. 360, At-Tabaqatuth-Thaniyatu minal-Muhajirina wal-Ansar and Salman Al-Farisi, Daru Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
- Literally means ‘People of the House.’ A term used for the house-folk of the Holy Prophet(saw).
- Sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabut-Tafsir, Suratul-Jumu‘ati, Babu Qaulihi Wa Akharina minhum Lamma Yalhaqubihim, Hadith No. 4897
- * Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, Vol. 2, pp. 407-408, Ghazwatu Uhud, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
* Tarikhul-Khamis fi Ahwali Anfasi Nafis, By Husain bin Muhammad bin Hasan, Vol. 1, p. 29, Dhikru Khabari Abi ‘Amir Ar-Rahib, Mu’assasatu Sha‘ban, Beirut
* Life of Mahomet, By William Muir, Chapter IX, Abu Aamir and followers go off to Mecca, p. 189, Smith, Elder & Co., London, 1878 Edition
* Mohammed and The Rise of Islam, By David Samuel Margoliouth, The Migration, p. 233, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, New York & London, 1905 Edition
- * Sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabu Manaqibil-Ansari, Babu Kaifa Akhan-Nabiyyu(saw) baina Ashabihi, Hadith No. 3937
* Sahihul-Muslim, Kitabul-Jihadi was-Siyar, Babu Raddil-Muhajirina ilal-Ansari, Hadith No. 4603
- Sahihul-Muslim, Kitabul-Jihadi was-Siyar, Babu Raddil-Muhajirina ilal-Ansari, Hadith No. 4603
- Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitabul-Adabi, Babu Fi Shukril-Ma‘ruf, Hadith No. 4812
- Sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabul-Manaqib, Babu Ikha’in-Nabiyyi(saw) bainal-Muhajirina wal-Ansar, Hadith No. 3781
- Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, Vol. 2, p. 193, Dhikrul-Mu’akhati bainas-Sahabati….., Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)