The Noble Wives of the Holy Prophet (sa)2 Comments | April 2013
Mother of the Believers – Hazrat ‘A’ishahra
by Hafiz Muzaffar Ahmad,
The lives of the Prophet Muhammadsa, his wives and the women of early Islam are often portrayed by numerous Western historians and scholars largely based on inaccurate historical material or without consulting original sources. This misinformation has been disseminated in the media, magazines and news reports forming an adverse image of the women of early Islam to the world. The Review of Religions has commissioned a special series on the wives and female Companions of the Holy Prophetsa to present the true life stories of the noble women of early Islam. Our purpose is not to individually respond to such historians, but only to present the actual history and to let our readers make up their own minds.
This article details the Holy Prophet’ssa marriage, to Hazrat A’ishahra.
Translated from the Urdu by Murtaza Ahmad
Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was truly unique in her status and this status is reflected both in the way that her marriage to the Holy Prophetsa was arranged, in his particularly kind and thoughtful treatment of her, and in her later role in relaying the teachings of the Holy Prophetsa and giving us a deeper insight into his character. At a young age ‘A’ishahra grew fast spiritually, physically and mentally, and her intellect was well beyond her years. Growing up in the household of a highly honoured chief of Arabia and the Prophet Muhammad’ssa closest friend and esteemed Companion, ‘A’ishahra had the unique opportunity as a woman in Arabia to acquire a mastery of various subjects. She had memorised long verses of poetry at a young age in an era where reading and writing was rare. Thus, memorising was considered a great art. She would understand profound concepts and could express them with eloquence.
Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was the daughter of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqra,1 the closest friend and Companion of the Holy Prophetsa, who stood by him through all difficulties. Hazrat Abu Bakrra also enjoyed the privilege of being the first man to accept Islam. He belonged to the Taim bin Murra bin K’ab branch of the Quraish clan and his kinship to the Holy Prophetsa could be traced back eight generations. According to the tribal system of that time, every clan was allotted some responsibilities and that of Hazrat Abu Bakr’sra tribe was to collect blood money as compensation, in the event of a person being killed. Hazrat Abu Bakrra himself used to discharge this important task on behalf of his tribe.2
Hazrat ‘A’ishah’sra mother, Hazrat Umm-e-Rumaanra, accepted Islam in its early days. After her death the Holy Prophetsa stated, “He who wants to meet a chaste woman should meet Umme Rumaan.”3
The Nikah (marriage) of the Holy Prophetsa
According to well-known narrations Hazrat ‘A’ishahra is said to have been born four or five years after Holy Prophet Muhammad’ssa claim of prophethood. Her marriage took place with the Holy Prophetsa under divine will. After marriage, the Holy Prophetsa related a dream that he saw to Hazrat ‘A’ishahra.
“‘A’ishah! Prior to our marriage, you were shown to me twice in a dream.’
According to another narration he mentioned to Hazrat ‘A’ishahra:
“An angel presented you to me for a period of three nights wrapped up in silk clothing, and said, ‘This is your wife in both this world and in the hereafter.’ I unveiled her face and what did I see? That it was you! I understood from this dream that this is the Will of God; so it would indeed be He who fulfils it.”4
Therefore, despite all the odds, this dream was fulfilled with great clarity and Allah the Exalted created provisions for this in the following manner. After the demise of Hazrat Khadijahra, Hazrat Khaulah bint Hakeemra presented herself before the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa and said, “O Messenger of Allah! We see you sad and grieved.” The Holy Prophetsa replied, “It is true that Hazrat Khadijahra took great care of me and after her demise this is my condition, quite naturally.” She stated, “O Messenger of Allah! There are two proposals. One is the unmarried girl ‘A’ishah daughter of Abu Bakrra, and the other is a widow by the name of Saudah bint Zamah.” The Holy Prophetsa replied, “Send a proposal to both.”
Hazrat Khaulahra sent the proposal to both. When the Holy Prophet’ssa marriage to Hazrat Saudahra took place, Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was quite young. However, the manner in which his vision of marrying her was fulfilled by Allah the Exalted was extraordinary and faith inspiring. Hazrat Khaulahra states that, “When I conveyed the message of the Holy Prophetsa to ‘A’ishah’sra mother and having given her a prayer of blessings I said, ‘I have brought a very good proposal for ‘A’ishahra.” She replied, “Wait! Abu Bakrra must be on his way.” When he came, he was told that the Messenger of Allahsa had a message of proposal for Hazrat ‘A’ishahra.’
Hazrat Abu Bakr’sra first reaction was that the Holy Prophetsa was his brother and would it have been appropriate for him to marry his niece? Hazrat Khaulahra went to the Holy Prophetsa and related this. He replied, “Go to Abu Bakrra and say, ‘No doubt he is my brother in Islam; however, this is a relation based on religious love and brotherhood. According to the law of Islam, there is nothing prohibiting this marriage.’” Hazrat Khaulahra went to Hazrat Abu Bakrra and Hazrat Umme Rumaanra to relate what she had been told by the Holy Prophetsa. Hazrat Abu Bakrra requested more time. Umme Rumaanra commented, “In actuality, Hazrat Abu Bakrra is a man of his word. His non-Muslim friend Mutim bin Adi had already requested the hand of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra in marriage for his son, Jubair. Thus, without speaking to Mutim it is difficult for him to make a decision.” Upon hearing this, Hazrat Abu Bakrra went to the house of the Quraish leader, Mutim, and said, “‘A’ishah is getting old. Now what is your view about this marriage?” Mutim remained quiet; however, his non-believing wife spoke out, “This Muslim girl is totally devoid of our faith.” Hazrat Abu Bakrra asked Mutim, “What is your opinion?’ He replied, “You have just heard my wife’s opinion.” Thereafter Hazrat Abu Bakrra felt satisfied that he was now absolved from breaking any agreements. He then sent a message through Hazrat Khaulahra saying, “We approve of this proposal.” Thus, the Nikah ceremony with Hazrat ‘A’ishahra took place.5
The Age of Hadrat ‘A’ishahra at the Time of her Marriage.
The Nikah of the Messenger of Allahsa took place two years prior to the Hijrat [migration] to Madinah. After the Hijrat of the Holy Prophetsa, Hazrat ‘A’ishahra settled in Madinah along with her family in the neighbourhood of Haarith bint Khazraj. A year later, Hazrat ‘A’ishah’sra Rukhstana (when the bride actually leaves her own home and moves in with the husband) took place. According to Hazrat ‘A’ishah’sra own accounts, she was 9 years of age at the time. However, the sole narrator of this is Hisham, who is the basis for this whole narration. According to a contemporary researcher, Hisham records that after ‘Tis‘a’ i.e. 9, the word ‘‘Asharah’ i.e. 10 has been mistakenly left out. Based on this research, at the time of the Nikah the age of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was 17 years and at the time of her Rukhsati she was 19. And she remained 9 years with the Messenger of Allah i.e. until she was 28 years of age.6
Nonetheless, in those days there was no custom of keeping age records. Even if the narration of her being 9 is deemed true, this could be Hazrat ‘A’ishah’sra own estimation of her age. Some opponents of Islam have also levelled objections against Hazrat ‘A’ishah’sra marriage at the young age of nine. In response, the Promised Messiahas stated:
“With reference to Hazrat ‘A’ishah’sra age on her wedding ceremony, it has been written that she was 9 years of age. Firstly, there is no evidence that the Holy Prophetsa stated this, nor had there been any revelation in regards to this. Nor is it substantiated from the Akbaar-e-Mutawaatirah, [Saying of the Prophet Muhmmadsa reported by a large number of people] that she was certainly 9 years. It has only been taken from one narrator. The Arab people did not keep birth certificates because they were unlettered and in view of their circumstances, a difference of two or three years is normal. Even in our country, many illiterate people cannot tell the difference between a couple of years. Moreover, if hypothetically, we were even to accept this, after having calculated each and every day, that she was in fact 9 years old; even then no intelligent person could object – research doctors have come to agree upon that girls can attain maturity even at the age of 9; in fact, they can even have children at the age of 7. And doctors have proven this through major observations. Many hundreds have witnessed with their own eyes that in this country 9 year old girls have had children.”7
In another place he states:
“Hazrat ‘A’ishahra being 9 years is only found among baseless statements. It is not proven by any Hadith or the Quran.”8
Other research by Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahibra, author of one of the most comprehensive biographies on the Prophet Muhammadsa, The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophets, suggests that Hazrat ‘A’ishahra may have been twelve years old. Since girls mature quickly in hot climates, it would not have been anything unusual for her to have been married at this age.9
The Account of Her Marriage
Hazrat ‘A’ishahra herself describes the events surrounding her marriage:
“I was having a ride and playing with my friends on the swings in my neighbourhood – Haarith bin Khazjraj – when my mother called me. I saw that the Noble Prophetsa had come with some people. My mother brought me from the swings. At the time, my hair was tied in a plait. My mother washed my face etc. and combed my hair and after getting me ready, she took me to the Holy Prophetsa. Other men and women were present as well. She made me sit with the Noble Prophetsa and said, ‘So here is your wife! May Allah the Exalted make your wife a blessing for you!’ Then people stood up and I got married to the Holy Prophetsa. By God! No goat or camel was sacrificed on my wedding. However, a cauldron of food was sent to the Messenger of Allah by Hazrat Sa’d bin Muaadhra, the chief of Madinah.”10
This incident shows in what a simple manner the Rukhsati of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra took place. It is also apparent that this was settled as an arranged marriage through families wherein the agreement of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was included; and regarding which no objection had ever arisen afterwards. Further, the misconception should not arise that Hazrat ‘A’ishah was a very young girl or that she had not reached a marriageable age due to the narration about her using the swings. In that era modern forms of entertainment of today were not available, people would have to make do with other forms of leisure. In fact, it is quite common even today for young women to be attracted to having some fun on swings.
Hazrat Asmaara bint Umais the wife of J‘afar Tayaaryun, has given us further insight into the occasion:
“I got Hazrat ‘A’ishahra ready on the day of her wedding. I was also among those women who presented Hazrat ‘A’ishahra to the Holy Prophetsa. Upon this occasion, a bowl of milk was presented to him. The Holy Prophetsa drunk some and gave the remainder to Hazrat ‘A’ishahra. Hazrat ‘A’ishahra owing to shyness and modesty, refrained from taking the milk.’ Hazrat Asmaara said to her, ‘Do not reject the bowl of milk conferred to you by the hands of the Holy Prophetsa!’”
Hazrat ‘A’ishahra bashfully took the bowl of milk with complete modesty and drunk some of the milk thereof. How meaningful and weighty was the advice of Hazrat Asmaara. Since the status of the Holy Prophetsa was that of a beloved and revered prophet of Allah, aside from his spiritual blessings, even the remnants of his food were a blessing and a means of honour.
Upon this, the Noble Prophetsa stated, “Now let your friends drink it as well.” Hazrat Asmaara said, “O Messenger of Allah! We are not hungry.” The Holy Prophetsa replied, “Do not put two things together – hunger and lying.” Asmaara said, “O Messenger of Allah! Would it also be a lie to talk ceremoniously that we do not feel hungry?” He replied, “Yes! If you lie about a small thing, it would be considered a small lie and if you lie concerning something big, it would be considered a big lie.”11
The Kindness of the Holy Prophetsa to Hazrat ‘A’ishahra
Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was the first wife of the Holy Prophetsa who had not been previously married, by the time of marriage to him. Hazrat ‘A’ishahra would rightfully make mention of this honour. All the rest of the marriages took place with such women who were divorcees and widows. As previously mentioned, during that era there were no particular social interests for women. There were no TV, Internet or other such modern modes of entertainment. Therefore, according to the culture of the time, Hazrat ‘A’ishah preferred to spend her spare time in games and leisure. In the ever busy life of the Holy Prophetsa, Hazrat ‘A’ishahra continued to play and engage in leisure activities with friends of her own age, even after marriage. The Holy Prophetsa would take great care of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra and showed kindness to her owing to her youth. Hazrat ‘A’ishahra herself states:
“Even after the wedding, I would play with my dolls in the house of the Holy Prophetsa. Some of my friends used to come to play with me. When the Holy Prophetsa would come home, they would run away in awe of him. The Holy Prophetsa would call them back for me and they would continue playing with me.” 12
The fact that upon the entry of the Holy Prophetsa the friends of Hazrat ‘A’ishah ran away, demonstrates that her friends were also of the same age and had also attained maturity, and thus were conscious that since Hazrat ‘A’ishah was a married woman, upon his arrival she should be left alone with the Holy Prophetsa. That is why they would leave immediately. There is a narration from Hazrat ‘A’ishahra that:
“Once the Holy Prophetsa came home when suddenly we heard some noise and the sound of some children. When the Holy Prophetsa went out and had a look, an Abyssinian woman was displaying skills according to the local African custom. Children were surrounding her. He said, ‘A’ishah! Come out and watch as well.’ I came and rested my chin upon the shoulder of the Messenger of Allahsa and started watching. After some time, he asked, ‘Have you now seen it? Is that enough?’ I would reply, ‘No. I would like to see more.’ Actually, I wanted to see how much of my demands he would meet. Meanwhile, Hazrat Umarra came and upon seeing him the children ran away. The Noble Messengersa stated, ‘I see that the devil either from humans or Jinn, runs away from Umar.’”13
The Holy Prophetsa would converse with his wives in a manner congruent with their interest and sense of humour. However, he had a special regard for Hazrat ‘A’ishah’sra young age. An incident shows how mature Hazrat ‘A’ishah’sra intelligence was; despite having been raised among the Arabs in the days of ignorance [prior to Islam], her knowledge and thoughts were much wiser than most girls of a young age.
“Once, while we were sitting in a room in the house, a draught blew the curtain of the cupboard behind which my dolls were placed. He asked, ‘‘A’ishahra! What are these?’ I replied, ‘Messenger of Allahsa these are my dolls.’ He was observing all this with much interest. Upon noticing, he enquired about a horse placed among the dolls which had two wings made out of leather. ‘A’ishah! What is placed in the middle of the dolls?’ I answered, ‘It is a horse.’ The Holy Prophetsa pointed to the wings and asked, ‘What are these?’ I responded ‘This horse has two wings.’ The Holy Prophetsa was surprised and asked, ‘A horse has two wings?’ I said, ‘Haven’t you heard Prophet Solomansa had horses with wings? Upon this, the Holy Prophetsa laughed so much that I could see his teeth.”14
Once on the occasion of Eid (an Islamic Festival) in Hazrat ‘A’ishah’sra house, some girls were beating small drums. The Holy Prophetsa was also in the house lying down facing the other way. Hazrat Abu Bakrra came in and rebuked his daughter Hazrat ‘A’ishahra and said “Why is this music being played in the house of the Holy Prophetsa?” For the sake of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra the Holy Prophetsa replied, “Every nation has its festival. Today, it is the Eid for the Muslims. Let these girls enjoy themselves.”15
The Holy Prophetsa cared deeply for Hazrat ‘A’ishah’sra feelings. Once on the occasion of Eid, the people of Habsha were displaying their skills of archery, spear fighting and sword fighting. Hazrat ‘A’ishahra relates, “The Noble Prophetsa asked, ‘A’ishah! Do you wish to see the game?’ I replied, ‘Yes O Messenger of Allahsa! I would like to see these tricks.’ He stated, ‘Then come!’ He took me along with him and made me stand behind himself. I looked over his shoulder for a long time until I was satisfied. Then the Holy Prophetsa himself asked ‘Have you now been satisfied?’ I replied, ‘Yes, Messenger of Allahsa.’ Upon this, he stated ‘Fine, now go home.’’’16
From this, one may determine the affection, love and kindness which the Holy Prophetsa had for Hazrat ‘A’ishahra. Due to being the wife of the Holy Prophetsa and the mother of the believers, the Holy Prophetsa was mindful of the need for her putting on the veil owing to her mature age, and in order to veil her, he made her stand behind him and then showed her these entertainments.
Girls of a young age generally have an interest in games and exhibitions. Observe how much the Holy Prophetsa took care of the emotions of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra. He would not hesitate in the least, to fulfil the reasonable desires of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra. At the time of marrying Hazrat ‘A’ishahra, the age gap between them was more than 40 years. This could have resulted in seriousness and formalities. However, this is not what happened. The Holy Prophetsa left no stone unturned to provide her with comfort and solace, whenever it was needed.
He would fulfil all her reasonable desires and youthful wishes. Hazrat ‘A’ishahra mentioned that during a journey the Holy Prophetsa asked, “‘A’ishah! Would you like to race with me?” She states that since she was slender she overtook him in the race. Who knows whether the Holy Prophetsa gave her a chance to beat him so as to boost her confidence, or whether Hazrat ‘A’ishahra really overtook him owing to her light weight. However sometime later, on another occasion the Holy Prophetsa again said to her, “Let’s have another race.” With the passage of time, Hazrat ‘A’ishahra had gained weight. This time the Holy Prophetsa raced ahead and reminded Hazrat ‘A’ishahra that this was recompense for the race which she had initially won. Such was the state of informality and enjoyment between them. Hazrat ‘A’ishahra has said, “The Holy Prophetsa would come down to my level and spoke to me according to how I thought, in my young age.”
Consideration of Feelings
The Holy Prophetsa did not miss any opportunity to show kindness to all his wives and would alleviate the smallest of their complaints. However, Hazrat ‘A’ishah’sra sharp-mindedness, intelligence, and understanding of his temperament meant that she received particular affection from the Holy Prophetsa. He used to say: “The greatness of ‘A’ishahra over the rest of the wives is like Thureed i.e. the superiority that meat has over ordinary food.” When some wives complained about such expressions, he replied, “Among all the wives, it is only in ‘A’ishah’s bed that I receive revelation.” That was to say that God’s treatment of her was unique.17
The extent to which the Holy Prophetsa cared for the emotions and feelings of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra can be determined from the following incident. An Iranian neighbour of the Holy Prophetsa used to cook a rather tasty soup. One day, he prepared food for the Holy Prophetsa and invited him to come over. At the time, it was Hazrat ‘A’ishah’sra turn to stay with the Holy Prophetsa. She was nearby and the Holy Prophetsa pointed towards her and asked, “Could she come over as well?” The man declined, possibly out of apprehension of any formalities and further preparations needed. The Holy Prophetsa responded, “Then, I cannot come.” A little while later, the Iranian came again to invite the Holy Prophetsa. The Holy Prophetsa again asked, “Can my wife come along with me?” He replied in the negative again and the Holy Prophetsa subsequently apologised for not being able to join him. A little while later, the Iranian invited the Holy Prophetsa to his house again. The Holy Prophetsa again enquired, “Can ‘A’ishah come as well?’ This time, he allowed the Holy Prophetsa to bring Hazrat ‘A’ishahra along with him. Subsequently, they both went to the Iranian’s house and had their food there. 18
Hazrat ‘A’ishahra had borne no children with the Holy Prophetsa, something which is a natural desire for couples. Once she mentioned to the Holy Prophetsa, “O Messenger of Allah! Why don’t you give me an appellation?” (This refers to a title given to a mother after the birth of her child). The Holy Prophetsa said, “Give yourself an appellation according to the name of your son.” According to some narrations, Hazrat ‘A’ishahra lost her baby in a miscarriage. Due to this incident, she was given the appellation Umme ‘Abdullah. Another narration states that after her sister Asmaara gave birth to ‘Abdullah bin Zubair, Hadrat ‘A’ishahra took this child and presented it to the service of the Holy Prophetsa. He put his blessed saliva into the baby’s mouth and said, “His name is ‘Abdullah and your appellation will be Umme-Abdullah.” This was on the basis of a Hadith which states that an aunt is like a mother.19 This incident demonstrates the kindness and consideration, which the Holy Prophetsa showed his wives.
Whichever wife was in the company of the Holy Prophetsa, special care would be taken for her ease and comfort. The Ahadith make mention of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra losing her necklace on more than one occasion. At such times the Holy Prophetsa would send people to search for Hazrat ‘A’ishah’sra necklace. Once, the Muslim army had to camp in a place where there was no water available to drink, nor was there any water to perform the ablution. Hazrat ‘A’ishah’sra father Hazrat Abu Bakrra became angry with her and said in a harsh tone, “A’ishah! You create hardship and problems on every journey!”20
However, the Holy Prophetsa himself never admonished her on these occasions. It was due to her that the Holy Prophetsa once had to change the direction of the army which resulted in difficulties. It was upon this occasion that the verses pertaining to Tayammum (the alternative for ablution when no water is available) were revealed. The convenience given was a favour and gift from Allah, which some companions who possessed a witty insight, attributed to the blessings of Hadrat ‘A’ishahra. Thus, the Ansaar tribal leader Hazrat Usaid Bin Hazeerra addressed Hazrat ‘A’ishahra and said “O the progeny of Abu Bakrra! This is not the first blessing which has been bestowed upon the Muslims through you.”
Women in Battle
Along with Hazrat Umme Salmahra and the daughter of the Holy Prophetsa – Hazrat Fatimahra, Hazrat ‘A’ishahra took part in battles, provided nursing and gave water to the wounded.21 The servant of the Holy Prophetsa Hazrat Anasra relates, that in the battle of Uhud, he saw Hazrat ‘A’ishahra and Hazrat Umme Salmahra running swiftly on the battlefield.22 Similarly, Hazrat Suhail bin S’adra states that on the day of Uhud when the Holy Prophetsa was injured, his daughter Hazrat Fatimahra cleaned his wounds and administered medical treatment to him.23 Whenever the Holy Prophetsa had to go to battle he would cast a lot to select who from among the wives he would take along with him. 24 In Ahadith, it is mentioned that Hazrat ‘A’ishahra joined the Holy Prophetsa in three Ghazwaats: the Battle of Uhud, the Battle of Mustaliq and the Conquest of Makkah.25
There was deep wisdom in the Holy Prophetsa showing his wives the skills of battle and challenging them to exert themselves physically, as when racing against them. That was so that they could, when need be, face up to challenging circumstances. For the first time, the foundation was laid for women to offer water to the wounded and nurse the injured. Previously women would join in the battles so as to raise the morale of their menfolk and to add colour and excitement to the gatherings and to distract the opposing side.
In his book Life of Mahomet, a French Christian biographer Emile Dermenghem alludes to this revolutionary notion of the Holy Prophetsa and writes that this was perhaps the first opportunity for women in history where they joined an army to provide nursing and care for the wounded. Dermenghem adds that otherwise prior to this, women served for nothing more than objects to incite men for war and for satisfying carnal pleasures. He concludes that until then, no one had thought about using women for appropriate and befitting service and of the fact that in the battlefield, women can carry out the best service of taking care of patients and attending to their needs.
The Holy Prophetsa abhorred the custom in which a woman could be reduced to nothing but a toy in the hands of men. The Holy Prophetsa raised the status of women in battles and women would quite appropriately take pride. Therefore, apart from the services rendered by the companions Hazrat Umme Salim, Hazrat Umme Rafeeda, the wife of the Holy Prophetsa, Hazrat ‘A’ishahra and his daughter Hazrat Fatimara rendered these services in the Battle of Badr. Hazrat Umme Salmara gave a beneficial suggestion at Ghazwah Hudaibiyah and thus enabled women to hold their heads high with pride.
To be continued in the next Edition
Hafiz Muzaffar Ahmad is an eminent scholar of the Holy Qur’an, Hadith and Islamic history. The ‘Hafiz’ in his name denotes that he has memorised the entire Holy Qur’an by heart. He has authored several books, including on the life of the Holy Prophetsa and his Companions. He is a regular panellist on the popular religious discussion programme ‘Rahe Huda,’ which broadcasts on Muslim Television Ahmadiyya International (www.mta.tv).
1. Siddiq is the appellation for the Truthful
2. Ibn-e-Hishaam, V.1, p.228
3. Ibn-e-S ‘ad V.8, p.277
4. Bukhari Kitabun-Nikah Babul Nazri illal marati qabla tajawaj/ zawaaj; Musnad Ahmad; V 6 pg. 128
5. Mujimul Kabir lil Tabrani V23 pg.57 v24 pg.80, Masnad Ahmad Volume 6 p210, Majmau- zawaaid v9 pg.228)
6. Kashful Ghummati ‘an ‘Umre Ummil ummati, V.2, pp.158-162; by Hakim Niyaaz Ahmad, Mashkoor Academy Karachi)
7. Nurul Quran, No.2, Ruhani Khazain, V.9, pp.377-378
8. Arya Dharam, Ruhani Khazain, v.10, p.64
9. Life and Character of the Seal of the Prophets
10. Abu Daud, Kitabul-Adab Fil Urjuha
11. Musnad Ahmad, V.6, p.438, Al Mu’jimul Kabir by Al Tabarani.’ V23, pp.63
12. Bukhari Kitab-ul-Adab Bab-ul-Inbisaat ilanaas
13. Tirmidhi Kitabul Manaaqib baab fi Manaqibi Umar
14. Abu Daud Kitabul Adabi Bab Fil la’bi bil banaat
15. Bukhari Kitabul Eideen baabu Sunnatil Eideen
16. Bukhari Kitabul Masaajid baabu ashaabil hiraab fil masjidia
17. Bukhari Kitabul Manaaqib baab Fadhle ‘A’ishah
18. Muslim Kitabul Atimatu baabu ma yaf‘aluzaifu iza itaba‘au ghair min da‘aahu saahibuta‘aami
19. Musnad Ahmad, V6 PP.93 Ibn Habban pp.70-73
20. Bukhari Kitabul Shahaadaat Baab Ta’dilunisaa Bazahuna ba’zan
21. Bukhari Kitabul Jihad Baab Madaawatunisaai Al-Jarha
22. Bukhari Kitabul Jihaad baab Ghazwatul nisaa wa qiitaalehuna
23. Bukhari Kitabul Jihaad Baab Dawaaul Jarha be ihraaq
24. Bukhari Ktaabul Jihaad wa Baab Haml-ul-Rajule Imratahu filghazwi
25. Bukhari Kitabul Jihaad Baabu Ghazwatul Nisaa – Kitabul Maghazi Baabul Ifk – Kitabul-shahadaat baab Shahaadatulqazif