Syria in CrisisNo Comments | November 2013
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After a two year conflict in which an estimated 100,000 had been killed and millions more made refugees, the chemical weapon sarin was deployed in districts around Damascus, the capital of Syria on August 21, 2013. Images of victims, including children, were distributed by a frenzied global media, who were quick to remind US President, Barack Obama, of his words from exactly one year and one day earlier: “We have been very clear to the Assad regime – but also to other players on the ground – that a red line for us is we start seeing a whole bunch of chemical weapons moving around or being utilised. That would change my calculus; that would change my equation.” A propaganda war commenced. Russian officials claimed the weapons had been used by the anti-Assad rebels, pointing to their links with terrorist organisations such as Al Qaeda. Meanwhile, Western powers blamed President Assad for the attack and began to prepare for military strikes against his regime. Despite the deafening clamour of the politician’s confrontational rhetoric and the media’s hysteria, one leader can always be relied upon to deliver a calming dose of truth.
Each week on Friday, Muslims gather together for the Friday Prayer . The Friday Prayer is an occasion for the assembly of the Muslims of a whole city or a town. It gives them an opportunity to meet together to discuss and solve their individual as well as community problems. Getting together once a week develops unity, cooperation and cohesiveness among Muslims. Hazat Mirza Masroor Ahmad, the Khalifah of the Promised Messiah and worldwide Head of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, delivers the Friday Sermon each Friday. Muslim Television International (MTA) broadcasts the Friday Sermon all across the world Live with up to 5 simultaneous translations, and also provides an online stream. Through MTA therefore, the Khalifah is able to address not just the congregation, but also the entire world. The Friday Sermon, in this way, becomes a demonstration of Islamic equality. It gives the Khalifah a chance to advise all Muslims at the same time on urgent matters that face them. On 13 September 2013, Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad delivered a historic Friday Sermon from the Baitul Futuh Mosuqe in London, the largest Mosque in Western Europe. His Holiness warned that the conflict in Syria could escalate into a catastrophic global conflict, and outlined to the world solutions to end the Syrian crisis, once and for all.
Translated from the Urdu by Amer Safir
After reciting Tashahhud, Ta’awwuz and Surah al-Faatihah, His Holinessaba said:
“The current world situation is rapidly spiralling towards destruction, particularly due to the circumstances in Syria. In fact, there is a potential of great devastation spreading not only in Syria, but in the entire Arab world, due to the state of affairs. If the foreign powers join, then there will also be colossal damage to a number of Asian countries and not only exclusively to Syria. The point that is not being understood by the Arab governments or by the other major powers is that the war will not remain limited to Syria alone, but it could, in fact, be the precursor to a world war. Ahmadis have accepted the true devotee of the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmadas, founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, who being a devotee of his master the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa, came to the world to establish a connection between man and God and to form peace and brotherhood. Therefore Ahmadis must give profuse attention towards prayers in order to save the world from destruction. Apart from prayers, we have no other means of making efforts to save the world from devastation.
Through our very small apparent efforts, we warn the world and the major powers about these most perilous consequences. I also warn the politicians and the governments of the world to the greatest extent possible, and I continue to do so. Along with me, the members of the Ahmadiyya Community have spread this message on a very large scale in various countries of the world. [Albeit] the leaders and politicians strongly express that our message is precisely the need of the hour, and comment that they most certainly do support us; however, when the time comes to practically demonstrating this, the priorities and preferences of the major powers change. These are only our apparent efforts; our real weapon is the weapon of prayers in order to carry out our every endeavour and to accumulate the blessings and Grace of Allah. In the prevalent circumstances, all Ahmadis should pay special heed towards prayers, for humanity in general and for the Ummat-e-Muslimah [Muslim people] in particular, to be saved from destruction. We must especially make prayers for this purpose.
In 1925, approximately 88 years ago, Hazrat Musleh Ma‘ud [Mirza Bashir-Ud-Din Mahmood Ahmadra, the Second Khalifah of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community], delivered a Friday Sermon relating to the situation in Syria at the time. [In his Friday Sermon] he stated that the history of Damascus is extremely old. Even before the advent of Islam, Damascus was the centre of many religions and held considerable significance. In Islam for a long period of time, Damascus remained the centre of Khilafat. Many religious relics were to be found in the city. Hazrat Musleh Ma‘ud explained the reason for delivering this Friday Sermon regarding Damascus and Syria. In the circumstances of the time, a tribe named the Druze started clamouring for freedom and the other Muslims all joined with them. Even though the Druze lived in the mountainous regions, the Muslims living in the cities had also united with them. Hazrat Musleh Ma‘udra also analysed that although from an administrative point of view the French government was in power at that time, in terms of certain decisions the Maulawi [religious cleric] or the Mufti were also rulers. In this sense there were two or three different types of rulers. Even so, the government was run politically by the French. In terms of the Mufti or the rulers, if anyone required permission to publish literature or a religious book which the Mufti was opposed to, then the government was completely powerless. Hazrat Musleh Ma‘udra cited an example of how the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community had obtained permission from the governor to publish some literature. After its publication, the Mufti banned it. When a complaint was lodged with the governor, he replied that he had no authority in this matter as the power for this lay in the hands of the Mufti.
Thus, the French government held the administrative power. If anyone raised a voice against it politically, he would be firmly suppressed. When voices were raised for freedom at the time and the local people rebelled, the French government conducted a huge aerial bombardment on Damascus, which is said to have continued for 57 or 58 hours. The history of the city and its historical buildings were left in complete ruins and thousands of people were killed. Why was this city devastated? Why were those people killed? It was because they sought independence from a foreign government. There is a revelation of the Promised Messiahas
[Calamity of Damascus].
Hazrat Musleh Ma‘udra stated that the situation in Damascus at the time when the aerial bombardment was conducted, in fact fulfilled this prophecy of the Promised Messiahas, for such a large devastation had never befallen Damascus before. All historical buildings and the religious history were completely wiped away into ruins. That destruction was caused by a foreign power; as I stated, it was carried out by France. 1 There are some revelations that are repeatedly fulfilled. That destruction was brought about at the hands of a foreign power and devastated the city through a bombardment which lasted for 57 or 58 hours, in which some say that 2000 people were killed, whilst others say that 20,000 people were killed. It is nevertheless said that according to conservative estimates, 7000-8000 were killed at the time.
We have to say with regret however, that whilst the destruction and loss in that case was wrought by a foreign power, there is also devastation that has come about today, caused by our own people. For the last two to two and half years it is spreading destruction and has engulfed all of Damascus and Syria. According to a conservative estimate, over 100,000 people have been killed. Others say that even more have perished. People in their millions have become displaced and houses as well as marketplaces have turned into ruins. There have been attacks on the presidential palace, airports and various other buildings. In short, no one is safe. The government’s armed forces are killing the citizens of the country and the citizens are killing government officials. Thus, the government forces as well as others are all involved. The Alawites are killing the Sunnis and the Sunnis are killing the Alawites. And all of them claim to profess the same Kalimah [Muslim creed].
The opposition to the government, who are acting in the name of freedom (a large proportion of whom are Sunnis), have now been joined by terrorist groups and factions, on the pretext of helping and supporting them. The extent of damage that is to be inflicted upon the country by these terrorists will be known afterwards. Nonetheless, the matter of regret is that the devastation which has struck this time is continuously spiralling into something extremely treacherous. These people are oblivious to the fact that the public, in the name of freedom, and the government, in the name of establishing peace, are committing atrocities upon one another. By entering into mutual conflict they are weakening to such a degree that now the major powers are going to make utmost efforts to acquire their personal interests on the pretext of bringing about freedom, eradicating cruelty and establishing peace. However, they are unaware that such endeavours can engulf the entire world in a war.
Some major governments and similarly those in the region side with and assist the Syrian government. Other governments side with the opposition to the Syrian government; in fact, a larger number have sided with the opposition. This situation has created a most precarious circumstance. The sadness, however, weighs upon the Muslim countries, who claim to follow the teaching which Allah the Almighty had stated had reached its perfection (Islam); who claim to be associated with the people whom Allah the Almighty has declared are the Khair-e-Ummah (best people). What aspect of goodness emanates from these Muslim countries today? There is no compassion or sympathy, nor are they acting upon any aspect of the teachings of the religion. Their dignity too has been stripped away, as they take assistance and help from non-Muslims, doing so to kill their own people. What are the Holy Qur’an’s teachings in such circumstances? What does Allah the Almighty say regarding two parties who are in conflict?
“And if two parties of believers fight against each other, make peace between them; then if after that one of them transgresses against the other, fight the party that transgresses, until it returns to the command of Allah. Then if it returns, make peace between them with equity and act justly. Verily, Allah loves the just.”2
Allah the Almighty states to bring about peace with justice and equity. And the standard of justice has been set so high by Allah the Almighty, that elsewhere He states:
“…and let not a people’s enmity incite you to act otherwise than with justice. If rather than worldly desires, you desire the love of Allah, then it is the duty of a Muslim that they should establish justice amongst each other, and they should also be just with non-Muslims.’’
Secondly, Allah has said:
“That is nearer to righteousness.”3 A Muslim has been repeatedly commanded exactly this, to “Search for righteousness, search for righteousness.”
What is shameful is that a suggestion has been given to the major powers by the President of Israel [that it is an Arab conflict and therefore the neighbouring Arab countries should resolve it], which the Muslims themselves should have presented instead. Even if we accept that the Muslim countries and their leaders had not thought of this recommendation, when the Israeli President presented this proposal to the Western powers, the council of the Muslim countries should have accepted it. They should have announced that they themselves would deal with whatever disorder and corruption is occurring in their own region, especially in those countries that belong to the same religion.
We believe in the same One God. We believe in the same Messenger and we all follow the teachings of the same Book, which we accept as our Guide. If differences have arisen between us; if fighting has broken out between two sects in any country or if conflict has erupted between the people and the government, whether justifiably or unjustifiably, then we will resolve the problem in the spirit of our perfect teachings. If one group transgresses, then in order to eliminate the wrongdoing, we can acquire the assistance of people outside or from non-Muslims, technical assistance or weapons if required. However the strategy, diplomacy and personnel will be our own in order to eradicate the disorder and strife. If this manner of thinking is adopted, no foreign power or non-Muslim would ever have the courage to even cast a mischievous gaze towards Muslim countries. What interest does a country thousands of miles away have with another? It is only that either they want to seize its wealth and resources; or it is so that they can overawe opposing major world powers by subjugating poor and weak nations in an effort to establish their supremacy. It is nevertheless a weakness on the part of the Muslim countries and also the fact that they have forgotten their teachings which has encouraged the foreign powers and non-Muslims to such a degree, where one country has announced that even if the United Nations does not permit them to attack Syria, they would still do so, because it is their right. The reason argued for this right is extremely childish, which is that the United Nations cannot dictate their foreign policy. Now where has the question of foreign policy arisen here? When enmity for one’s enemy increases to such an extent that one becomes as if blindfolded, then seemingly well-educated people start making ignorant statements. People greatly look up to them as deeply intellectual, although their statements are actually ignorant.
You are sitting thousands of miles away and have no connection with this matter. If you should have a connection then it is with the United Nations for you are part of its charter. You have no charter with any individual country nor is any one country of your concern. There is no direct threat from the country where there is disorder and corruption. How then has the question of foreign policy arisen? I have not understood this in any case. This is merely stubbornness and obstinacy and a huge effort to establish one’s superiority. World peace will not be established in this manner. In order to establish peace, the requirements of justice must be fulfilled. For fulfilling the requirements of justice, the teachings of Islam are so beautiful that they are unrivalled. Islam says that the enmity of any people or nation should not incite you to act otherwise than with justice. In light of this, I have drawn the attention of the world leaders again and again that peace can only be established by following this method. Peace is established through the teaching of the Holy Qur’an in the verse that I presented. If the United Nations establishes peace upon this principle, then true peace will be established. All countries should make a united effort wherever they see cruelty and persecution; it should not be the case that any country has a veto power, or that any other country has a right to do whatever it pleases. It is not the question here of any one country’s foreign policy.
Another country has stated that in order to establish peace in Syria, they would not send ground troops, however they would carry out an airstrike. In other words this city and this country would be entirely razed to the ground and into ruins, as has been mentioned before. They will kill innocent people; they will kill children and they will kill women, in the same manner as what came to pass in Iraq and Libya. What has been achieved there that is now expected to be achieved here? Cities were left in ruins and peace has still not been established there. Allah Almighty has also produced someone from amongst them to rebut them. Only yesterday, the President of Russia gave a statement or perhaps it was in an article,4 and said that it is injustice to make this decision independently; if this is the manner in which decisions ought to be made, then why was the United Nations formed? He clearly gave the same message which we repeatedly impart to the world; that if the current course of action continues, then the United Nations would also suffer the same sorry fate as the League of Nations. Most certainly what he said is correct.
With respect to the rights of the people, the government in Egypt was toppled. It was said that the rights of the people were not being fulfilled and the government was mercilessly killing its own people to save itself. Most certainly, it is true that the government behaved wrongly; however, the government that came into power in Egypt after toppling the previous government consisted of extremists and religious fanatics. The major powers once again became concerned regarding what would happen after. A journalist of a major newspaper in the United States asked me what possibility there was of peace in Egypt now. I replied to the journalist that perhaps you toppled the government in order to preserve your influence; however, your calculation was wrong. The people who have now come into power are neither of your persuasion nor that of the Egyptian people. That is to say, the majority of the people in Egypt oppose them. Flames are still burning there, and you will see within a few months, there will once again be bloodshed, as was previously the case. However, the bloodshed ensued well before my estimate. The recent events that have taken place in Egypt are before us all. Whatever the cause of the unrest and anxiety in the Muslim countries—for there may be justifiable reasons for the public apprehension—when the major powers interfere in the wrong manner, it will breed disorder and corruption. At the outset of 2011 I delivered two or three sermons on this issue. I made it clear that as a result of the circumstances of the Muslims, whatever visible or concealed strategies or policies the major powers implement would ultimately harm the Muslims. These major powers will never allow their interests to be affected, and now this precisely can be observed.
When the bloodshed occurred during the era of Hosni Mubarak, support was given to the public. Great efforts were made to bring about regime change and there was extensive propaganda. However when the government that came into power did not take care of interests; that is to say, that when the military government took over and they shed even more blood than before, no one expressed their compassion or sympathy for the public and the people nor did anyone support them. Ultimately, this is a double standard and there is a discrepancy.
The governments of Muslim countries should even now show self-respect, should rise beyond their personal interests and look at the interests of the Muslim people. This, however, can only occur when righteousness is cultivated in the hearts of those running the affairs of the government as well as in the hearts of the public. This will only happen when in conjunction with claiming to love the Holy Prophetsa, efforts are also made to emulate his example. This will only come to pass when the leaders as well as the people feel the pain of the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa and strive to act upon his teachings.
I shall present some statements and guidance from the teachings of the Holy Prophetsa, which draw the attention of both leaders and the people towards their responsibilities. First, I shall present some Ahadith [sayings of the Holy Prophetsa]relating to leaders and rulers. There is a tradition narrated by Hazrat Abu Hurairahra, who states that:
“The Holy Prophetsa said, ‘On that day when there will be no shade apart from the shade of God, He will cover in His shade of mercy seven persons. The first will be the Imam-e-Aadil [the just leader].5’”
Thus, this is the importance of justice.
Hazrat Abu Sa‘eedra narrates that the Holy Prophetsa said:
“On the Day of Judgment, Allah the Almighty will find most beloved and near to Him he who is a just leader. And the most disliked and far-removed from God will be a cruel leader.”6
A tradition mentions that the Holy Prophetsa said:
“If he who has been made the guardian or responsible over people does not carry out his responsibility properly, or if in their well-being there is any shortcoming, then upon his death, Allah the Almighty will make Paradise forbidden for him.”7
In another tradition, Hazrat ‘Aishahra said, in response to being asked by someone, that:
“I shall inform you of something which I have heard the Holy Prophetsa say in this very house of his. He said: ‘O Allah [‘O Allah’ in fact is a type of prayer] from amongst my people whoever is made the responsible person and acts harshly to them, You also treat him in a harsh manner. And he who is made responsible amongst my people and is gentle and kind amongst my Ummah, You also be kind to him.’” 8
Thus, these are the aspects which the leaders should consider and reflect on. If they claim to be Muslims and desire to be encompassed by the shade of God’s mercy, and they most certainly would have this desire, then they would have to act in a just manner. If they want to become the beloved of God, then they would have to end all cruelty and oppression. They would have to rise above personal interests when making decisions. If they desire to enter Heaven, then they have to be good and take care of the well-being of people without discrimination. Otherwise, as the Holy Prophetsa has said, your place would be Hell. In this Hadith there is the prayer that:
“O Allah, that leader who is harsh, may Allah be harsh on him and that leader who is gentle and kind, may Allah be kind and gentle upon him.”
This actually leaves one who has faith trembling. May Allah the Almighty enable our Muslim leaders and rulers to come to possess wisdom and to consider and to reflect upon this.
Now, what instructions did the Holy Prophetsa give the people and public? What attitude should they adopt in dealing with their leaders and rulers?
Hazrat Zaid bin Wahabra said that:
“I heard from ‘Abdullah bin Mas‘udra who said that the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa said that, ‘You will see after me that your rights will be usurped and others will be given preference. Further, you will see such things which you will dislike.’ After hearing this, the companion said, ‘O messenger of Allah, in such circumstances what do you instruct?’ The Prophetsa said, ‘At that time, fulfil the dues of the rulers.’”
Despite observing all of this, the Prophetsa said fulfil the dues of your ruler and ask for your rights from Allah.9
Thus these strikes, this bloodshed and this seizing of rights are not permitted. If one beseeches Allah for his rights, then Allah the Almighty makes such decisions which the world cannot even envisage. It is mentioned in a tradition (many Ahmadis of the Arab world ask me from time to time about this) that a companion asked the Holy Prophetsa that:
“O messenger of Allah, if such leaders rule over us who ask of us to fulfil their rights but do not give us our rights, what do you instruct us to do in such circumstances?”
The Holy Prophetsa refrained from answering. The companion repeated his question, and the Prophetsa refrained from answering once again. So when a second or third time the companion repeated his question, Ash‘ath bin Qaisra dragged him back, (in other words he tried to silence him) saying that, ‘The Holy Prophetsa did not like the question so fall back, do not ask it.’ It is then that the Holy Prophetsa said, ‘In such circumstances listen to your rulers and obey them. Whatever responsibility has been placed upon them they will be held to account for and you will be held to account for the responsibilities upon you.’” 10
In a Hadith Junaadah bin abi ‘Umayyah relates that “When we went to ‘Ubadah bin Saamit, who was ill, we said that may Allah the Almighty give you good health. Relate to us such a Hadith which you heard from the Holy Prophetsa. May Allah the Almighty give you benefit as a result of it. He said, ‘The Holy Prophetsa once called us and we did the Bai‘at [Pledge of Allegiance]. He took the pledge that in every circumstance, whether in happiness or otherwise, in difficult circumstances or in comfort or even when rights are usurped, we will listen and obey. He also took the pledge that we would not quarrel with the person who is the ruler unless we openly saw him committing Kufar [disbelief] for which you have reasons and arguments from Allah.’” 11
This refers to Kufar that is clearly supported by evidence; not in the manner in which these Muslim ‘ulema [religious scholars] today issue fatwas upon people.
Hazrat Abu Zarrra relates in Hadith-e-Qudsi,12 that the Holy Prophetsa related this from Allah the Almighty:
“O my servants, I have made injustice forbidden for me and I have forbidden it from being committed from amongst you. So thus do not be cruel and unjust to each other.”13
Thus, if you want to be saved from the punishment of Allah then go on fulfilling your obligations; continue praying. The matters of the leaders will be left with Allah the Almighty. I will clarify the statement “Kufar [disbelief] of the rulers.” There must be clear violations against the laws of the Shari‘ah and only then disobey the rulers. Do not form your own explanations. For example, take what happens with Ahmadis in Pakistan. They are told to not recite the Kalimah [Muslim creed], to not offer the Muslim prayer and to not say the greetings of Salaam [Islamic greeting]. We are Muslims, thus we do say this. Those who stop us are trying to make us violate the commands and the laws of the Holy Qur’an, which we will not do. Apart from this however, we must abide by the law of the land.
Thus, the summary of all teachings (in this regard) is in this latter Hadith: “Do not be cruel and unjust to one other.” The leader should not be cruel to the citizens, nor should the citizens carry out any such act which proves to be unjust or cruel in order to obtain their rights.
Now, it is the duty of both the leaders and the citizens to consider; are they acting upon this teaching? Are the leaders reaching the highest levels of justice? Do they, upon every decision, make God a witness and act upon His teaching? Similarly, except for any clear violations of Allah the Almighty’s laws of the Shari‘ah, are they the citizens acting upon the remaining commands of the leader as:
[“We hear and we obey”]?14
Do they fall in submission and cry only before the Lord against the cruel leaders?
If anyone is acting on this today, it is perhaps Ahmadis alone and nobody else. If the others do not follow this, we will regress to the era which has been mentioned in the Qur’an as:
[Corruption has appeared on land and sea].15
In accordance with the prophecy of the Holy Qur’an and the Holy Prophetsa, this era was destined to befall the Muslims at the time of the Promised Messiah and Imam Mahdias, when such circumstances would develop. Thus Muslim leaders, and the citizens, need to reflect on this. In accordance with the promises of Allah, they need to search for the one sent by Allah and hold on to his mantle, in order to eliminate disorder and corruption. If the people of Syria in particular and the Muslims in general, reflected just on the following revelation of Promised Messiahas, [Calamity of Damascus], then they would realise that the person who made that prophecy has been sent by Allah. They should listen to what he says. Otherwise, there is no one else who can provide guidance in this era except for the one God has sent.
As a result of the attitude of countries, the religious extremists and organisations who set up their own authority or governments will alone benefit. Thereafter, the immense bloodshed and killings that will occur amongst them is beyond imagination. May Allah the Almighty grant wisdom to the Muslim rulers and leaders, and also to the people, so that they may understand the meaning of this verse:
[Help one another in righteousness and piety]16 and that they become those who increase in piety and virtuousness; that they become those who spread love and that they become those who win over the hearts of the people.
Governance can never be successful without winning over people’s hearts and fulfilling the rights of people. Every Muslim leader needs to understand this spirit. Cast a glance over your history. There was a time when Christians, witnessing the justice and equity of the Muslim government, would pray that they may quickly be freed from the grip of the Christian governance, and rapidly come under the shade of the Muslim government instead. And now today, we see in this era, that a Muslim is falling prey to injustices being perpetrated by another Muslim. Instead of acting upon:
[showing mutual compassion],17 Muslims are killing one another. Muslims are fleeing to Christian countries in order to gain refuge and in order to acquire justice, so that they can live in freedom. If only the Muslim countries and its leaders understood their responsibilities. May Allah make it so that in some way our message, which I have just conveyed, may reach the Western countries and major powers. As I said, I have already conveyed through various means that it is not unlikely that the measures against Syria will go beyond the country and will engulf the entire world. Thus, for an Ahmadi living in each country it is the requirement of love for his country, and especially every such Ahmadi who is living in these western countries, that he alerts the politicians of the impending destruction.
It is a prayer to Allah the Almighty that He enables the world to come to accept the truthfulness of the Promised Messiahas; that the leaders and the citizens are enabled to fulfil their rights; that they should eliminate warfare and be saved from destruction. May the eyes of the leaders of Europe and the Western countries also be opened so that they can conduct their responsibilities with justice and equity and desist from cruelty and oppression. May they strive to fulfil the rights of even the smallest of countries. May their help of any country not be for personal interests, but rather to actually fulfil their rights.
May Allah the Almighty enable Ahmadis to be safe from every evil in these circumstances. In Syria especially many Ahmadis are being affected. Allah the Almighty provided a revelation by way of warning:
[Calamity of Damascus] . May that revelation of good tiding also be fulfilled soon and be a means of being the delight of our eyes in which Allah the Almighty stated:
that the Abdaal (or the devotees) of Syria and the servants of Allah from among the Arabs are supplicating on your behalf.18
May Allah the Almighty enable the entire Arab world to rapidly come under the flag of the Messiah of Muhammadsa. This is so that the unrest in the Arab world, which the world has called the Arab Spring, should not be worldly, but rather be the source of spiritual blessings. May these people be those who pray and supplicate for the Promised Messiahas and that they bond with him and spread the true teachings of Islam, which is of love, affection and peace. May Allah the Almighty also enable us to understand our responsibilities and fulfil them. May we be those who absorb the Mercy of Allah the Almighty and may we always guide the world towards the fulfilment of rights. May we be those who establish justice and peace and may we spread this teaching. May Allah the Almighty also save the world from the horrific effects of war. Ameen.”
1. Quoted from Khutbat-e-Mahmood, Vol. 9, pp. 324-334, Friday Sermon of 13th November 1925, Published by Fazl-e-‘Umar Foundation, Rabwah.
2. Holy Qur’an, Al Hujurat Ch.49:V.10.
3. Holy Qur’an, Al Ma’idah Ch. 5:V.9.
5. Sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabul-Hudud, Babu Fadli mann Tarakal-Fawahish, Hadith No. 6806.
6. Sunan At-Tirmidhi, Abwabul-Ahkaam, Babu Maa Jaa’a fil-Imaamil-‘Aadil, Hadith No. 1329.
7. Sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabul-Ahkaam, Babu mannistur‘iya Ra‘iyyatan falam Yansah, Hadith No. 7151.
8. Sahihu Muslim, Kitabul-Imaarah, Babu Fadeelatil-Ameeril-‘Aadil wa Uqubatil-Jaa’ir…, Hadith No. 4722.
9. Sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabul-Fitan, Babu Qaulin-Nabiyyisa Satarauna Ba‘di Umuran Tunkirunaha, Hadith No. 7052.
10. Sahihu Muslim, Kitabul-Imaarah, Babu fi Taa‘atil-Umaraa’i wa ann Mana‘ul-Huqooq, Hadith No. 4782.
11. Sahihu Muslim, Kitabul-Imarah, Babu Wujoobi Taa‘atil-Umaraa’i fi ghairi Ma‘siyah…, Hadith No. 4771.
12. Hadith that includes a statement from Allah that is not in the Holy Qur’an itself.
13. Sahihu Muslim, Kitabul-Birri Was-Sillati Wal-Adabi, Babu Tahreemiz-Zulm, Hadith No. 6572.
14. Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqarah Ch.2:V.286.
15. Holy Qur’an, Ar-Rum Ch.30:V.42.
16. Holy Qur’an, Al-Ma’idah Ch.5:V.3.
17. Holy Qur’an, Al-Fath Ch.48:30.
18. Tadhkirah, p. 603, 4th Edition, Published in Rabwah, Pakistan.