27The Review of Religions – July 2008KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 by Ijaz Tahir – UK Achievements, events, schemes and programmes of the Khulafa-e- Ahmadiyya over the last 100 years. This article has been adapted from the ‘Centenary Khilafat e Ahmadiyya’ souvenir published by Tahrik- e-Jadid Anjuman in Pakistan in 2008. MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT May 27 Hadhrat Al-Haj Maulwi Nur-ud-Din elected by a unanimous vote as Khalifatul Masih in Bahishti Maqbara Qadian on 27th May and leads the funeral Prayers of the Promised Messiah(as) June First Library set up and placed under the control of Sahibzada Hadhrat Mirza Bashir ud Din Mahmood Ahmad Sahib. Hadhrat Khalifat-ul- Masih I donates books and also gives financial help. Hudhur launches the scheme for a Religious Madrassa in the memory of Hadhrat Promised Messiah(as) January 24 Hadhrat Mir Nasir Nawwab Sahib advertises in Al-Badr for erecting four buildings to meet the expansion of Qadian. Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih I donates Rs. 260 from his own pocket. The estimated expenditure of the buildings is Rs. 20,000, that includes a mosque later known as Nur mosque, a male ward named Nasir Ward (later Nur Hospital in 1918), a female ward named Umm-ul-Mumineen Ward and a few huts built for poor immigrants (Dar.u-Du’afa). Hadhrat Mir Muhammad Ishaq Sahib visits several places in India for this project. 1908 – Milestones of the 1st Khilafat 1909 28 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT The Review of Religions – July 2008 KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 January 21 Ahmadi women join Jumuah Prayer in the last row of Aqsa mosque for the first time. February Dar-ul-Uloom colony is established and also foundation stone of Nur mosque is laid. March 25 Four men are appointed to relay Hudhur’s voice during Friday sermon for the first time. August 27-28 An Ahmadiyya delegation participates in the conference of “Islami Anjuman” held in Meerut. November 18 Hudhur falls down from his horse and is severely injured. The Promised Messiah(as) had dreamt about this in 1903: ‘Last night I saw in a dream that a member of my Jama’at has fallen off a horse. Thereupon, I woke up.’ February Hadhrat Sahibzada Mirza Bashir ud Din Mahmood Ahmad founds the organisation of Ansarullah with Hudhur’s permission. Hudhur states that he also is a member of the organisation, with the formal opening being ceremony being held on 6th April. March Hudhur launches a scheme to collect money for the Muslim University in Aligarh and donates Rs. 1,000 on the behalf of the Community. The Promised Messiah’s Arabic poems “Al-Qasaid ul Ahmadiyya” are published by the office of the ‘Review of Religions’ February 19 In the beginning of 1912 some of the youngsters of Qadian establish ‘the Organisation of Preachers’ (Anjuman e Muballighiin) which is named as the “Yadgar-e-Ahmad” (Ahmad Memorial). The sole purpose of this organisation is to publish short tracts to safeguard and protect Islam against other religions. They publish several pamphlets. The first is “Kasr-e-Saleeb” written by Hadhrat Mir Muhammad Ishaq Sahib(ra) 1910 1911 1912 29 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT The Review of Religions – July 2008KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 April 3 – 29 A delegation of Ahmadi scholars goes on a tour to report on the system and the method of education visiting Lucknow, Kanpur, Shahjahanpur, Rampur, Delhi, Saharan Pur, and Dev Band. The delegation is headed by Hadhrat Mirza Bashir ud Din Mahmud Sahib(ra) June 15 Hudhur journeys to Lahore to lay the foundation stone of the house of Sheikh Rahmatullah Sahib. Hudhur takes this journey to fulfill the promise made by the Promised Messiah(as) which could not be fulfilled during his lifetime. June 16 Hudhur delivers a series of lectures in Lahore in which he throws fresh light on the topic of “the Institution of Khilafat”. July 25 Hudhur lays the foundation stone of Madrassa Ta’aleem-ul-Islam. July 25 Hadhrat Chaudhry Fateh Muhammad Siyal Sahib reaches England for the propagation of Islam. July 26 Hadhrat Syed Zain-ul-Abideen Wali-Ullah Shah Sahib and Sheikh Abdur-Rahman Misri Sahib depart to Egypt for higher education in Arabic. December 26 – 28 At Jalsa Salana in Qadian, two speeches are delivered by Hudhur(ra). A weekly Arabic appendix starts in the Newspaper Al-Badr under the title of ‘Masleh-ul-Arab’ for propagation in Arab countries. The message of Ahmadiyyat reaches Finland for the first time through Hadhrat Chaudhry Mohammad Zafrulla Khan Sahib. January With Hudhur’s permission Hadhrat Sahibzada Mirza Bashir-ud-din Mahmud Ahmad Sahib initiates a nationwide scheme for the propagation of Islam and founds a ‘Dawat-ilal-Khair Fund’. February 8 Huzur(ra) announces that God has foretold him about the spreading of Ahmadiyyat in Africa 1913 1914 30 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT The Review of Religions – July 2008 KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 March 14 Hadhrat Sahibzada Mirza Bashir-ud-din Mahmud Ahmad Sahib(ra) takes the Office of Khilafat as the second manifestation (Qudrat-e- Saniya) of Divine Help. March Hudhur(ra) sends Hadhrat Sufi Ghulam Muhammad Sahib(ra) from Qadian to Mauritius to establish the Ahmadiyya Mission. April 12 A national meeting of representatives of the Jama’at is held at the Mubarik Mosque in Qadian. There are 150 foreign representatives. Hudhur’s enlightening speech is published with the title “ The Office Of Khilafat”. Hadhrat Choudhry Fateh Muhammad Sial Sahib arrives in Woking in July 1913 with the objective of preaching Islam. By April 1914, he comes to London and in this way the Ahmadiyya mission house is established on a permanent basis in Star Street off Edgware Road in London. December The Minarat-ul-Masih that the Promised Messiah(as) started and fixed a memorial stone was re-started after a fresh appeal. March Hadhrat Mufti Muhammad Sadiq Sahib leaves Qadian for London as a missionary. The prophecy about the Tsar “ zar bhi ho ga to us gheri bahale Zar” (Even Tsar will be in a miserable condition at that time) is fulfilled with the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. January For the discipline of the work in the offices, Hudhur selects the system of Nazarat (Directors) and the first Nazir-e-Aala is Hadhrat Maulawi Sher Ali sahib. 1919 1914 – Milestones of the 2nd Khilafat 1917 1918 March In Hudhur’s office, the correspondence answering system is set up as a separate branch and the first officer is Maulana Abdur Raheem Nayyer sahib. 1916 March The revelation of the Promised Messiah(as) ‘The aunt has come’ is fulfilled when the wife of Sahibzada Mirza Ghulam Qadir Sahib, the elder brother of the Promised Messiah(as) accepts Ahmadiyyat. 31 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT The Review of Religions – July 2008KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 January Hudhur launches an appeal to the people for contributions of Chanda for the Fazl Mosque in London, and by June 10, 78,000 rupees (twelve thousand pounds) are collected. Of this, five thousand rupees are collected through the women of Qadian who present their jewellery and children who give their pocket money. June 21 Hudhur inaugurates the missionary training class and the first teacher appointed is Hadhrat Hafiz Roshan Ali sahib. May 16 Hudhur holds the first Majlis-e-Shura (consultation council) for the tour of Europe. May 24 Hudhur announces his tour of Europe and said that this tour’s main purpose is to make permanent schemes for preaching in the West. October 19 Hudhur lays the foundation stone of the Fazl Mosque in London. December 25 Hudhur founds the Lajna Imaillah and Hadhrat Umm-ul- Momineen Syeda Nusrat Jehan Begum sahiba is appointed as the first President. March 7 Hudhur announces a Tablighi Jihad against the Shuddhi (a Hindu scheme to convert Muslims to Hinduism) rally. December 18 The German Mission is founded in Frankfurt. June 25 Hudhur sends Syed Zainul Abedeen Sahib and Maulana Jalaludin Shams Sahib from Qadian to Palestine and Syria to start a new mission there. Both of them reach Damascus on July 17th 1925. 1925 1924 1923 1922 1920 1926 1921 May “Dar-ul-Shuyukh” is founded in Qadian for the orphans and the poor. Hudhur lays the foundation stone of Qasr-e-Khilafat in Qadian and it is completed in October of the same year. February 9 Hudhur sends Maulwi Abdur Rahim Nayyar via London to Ghana to establish the first mission in Africa. 32 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT The Review of Religions – July 2008 KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 May 2 Hudhur presents seven suggestions for the establishment of peace in his detailed letter to the Viceroy of India. February 28 The two wings of the Muslim League, Jinah and Shafi, become united as a result of the efforts of the Ahmadiyya community. February 3 Maulana Rehmat Ali sahib, missionary of Indonesia, establishes an Ahmadiyya Community there. December Hudhur is invited to the worldwide Muslim Conference held in Baitul Maqdas. On Hudhur’s direction, Hadhrat Maulana Jalal-ud- Din Shams sahib attends the conference. February 13 Hudhur presides over the meeting of the all India Kashmir committee. April 25 Hudhur inaugurates the new offices of Sadar Anjuman Ahmadiyya. March Maulana Abd ul Rahim Sahib Dard meets Quaid-e-Azam (Jinah) in England on Huzur’s direction and persuades him to return to India. April 6 Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinah delivers the famous speech in Bait ul Fazl London under the auspices of the Imam of the London Mosque. He expresses his agreement to return to India. December 3 The first mosque in Palestine “Sayyidna Mahmood” is inaugurated. 1929 1933 1932 1931 1930 1928 May 20 Inaugurates Jamia Ahmadiyya Qadian and appoints Hadhrat Muhammad Sarwar Shah Sahib as its first principal. 33 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT The Review of Religions – July 2008KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 November The first ever Ahmadiyya press in Arabian Countries is established in Kababir, Palestine. November 23, 30, December 7 Hudhur presents a new scheme in three Friday sermons and announces its name as Tahrik-i-Jadid. March 2 An Ahmadiyya mission is founded in Burma and the first missionary appointed there is Maulana Ahmad Khan Sahib Naseem. May 6 A group consisting of 3 missionaries departs from Qadian under the Tahrik-i-Jadid scheme. Maulawi Ghulam Hussain Sahib departs to Singapore, Sufi Abdul Ghafoor Sahib for China and Sufi Abdul Qadeer Niaz Sahib sets off for Japan. Sufi Abdul Ghafoor Sahib establishes the first Ahmadiyya Mission in Hong Kong. The first convert is Li Ong King. Missionaries are sent to a number of countries including Argentina, Tanzania, Hungary, Albania and Kenya. January Hudhur delivers the Friday sermon on loud speakers in the Aqsa Mosque of Qadian and makes the prophecy that the Dars of Qur’an and Hadith being delivered in Qadian would soon be heard all over the world through modern communications. (In December 2005, the Friday Sermon of Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih V was heard in the whole world through MTA from Qadian). Hudhur establishes Majlis Khuddam-ul-Ahmadiyya. The first members are 10 young men. On February 4th Hudhur names the organisation “Khuddam-ul-Ahmadiyya” and appoints Maulana Qamar-ud-Din Sahib Sikhwani as the first President. 1938 1936 1935 1934 34 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT The Review of Religions – July 2008 KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 February Majlis Nasiraat-ul-Ahmadiyya is founded for the girls of the Jamaat and the teacher Memona Sophia is appointed as its first President, and Sahibzadi Amatul-Rasheed Begum Sahiba as the secretary. Hadhrat Sahibzada Mirza Nasir Ahmad Sahib is appointed the President of Khuddam-ul-Ahmadiyya. January 26 Hudhur presents Ahmadiyyat and Islam a new calendar. It begins with the migration of the Holy Prophet(saw) to Madinah. Hudhur names it Hijri Shamsi (after Hijrat and Solar). The months of this calendar have been given the names of the most important incidents of the Holy Prophet’s life: Suluh (peace), Tableegh (Preaching), Aman (Protection), Shahadat (Witness), Hijrat (Migration), Ehsan (Benevolence), Wafa (Loyalty), Zuhuur (Manifestation), Tubuk , Ikha, Nubuwwat (Prohethood ) and Fatah (victory). Subtracting 622 years from the solar calendar makes the Hijri Shamsi calendar. July 26 Hudhur declared the establishment of Majlis Ansarullah and appoints Hadhrat Maulvi Sher Ali Sahib as the first President. The Jama’at is established in Scotland through Maulana Jalal-ud-Din Shams Sahib when a student from a Scottish University, Miss White Paul and Mr. Frier embrace Ahmadiyyat. May Hudhur appoints a Board of Ulema (Scholars) of the community to expedite the first Commentary of the Holy Qur’an in English. 1939 1940 1942 35 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT The Review of Religions – July 2008KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 January Loudspeakers fixed on Minaratul Masih. March 24 Hadhur starts a movement for intellectual youngsters to devote their lives to serving the religion, initially with 200 scholars and experts in other fields. July 21 Hudhur launches a scheme to establish seven new centres for Dawat Ilallah (call towards Allah) in India: Peshawar, Karachi, Madras, Bombay, Calcutta ,Delhi and Lahore. April 19 The Fazl-e-Umar research institution has its inauguration. June 10 Maulana Karam Elahi Zafar sahib and Maulvi Muhammad Ashaq sahib go to Madrid for the foundation of a mission in Spain. August 19 Maulana Ghulam Ahmad sahib Mubashir leaves for Jordan to create a mission there. September 24 Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah meets Hudhur. October 18 Tahrik-i-Jadid is registered and given the name of “Tahrik-i-Jadid Anjuman Ahmadiyya”. January 25 Hudhur is foretold in a dream about the terrible situation of Punjab and the very next month the problems start, which will end up resulting in the partition of India in August 1947. July 22-31 Hudhur visits Lahore to inspect the boundary commission’s work. December In 1947 the first Jalsa convention in “Rattan Bagh” Lahore is held after the independence of Pakistan. 1944 1946 1947 36 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT The Review of Religions – July 2008 KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 January Shopkeepers in Qadian resolve not to sell items to Ahmadi dervishes left behind in Qadian. February 19 Tahrik-i-Jadeed Anjuman Ahmadiyya Pakistan is registered. March 15 Hadhrat Sahibzada Mirza Waseem Ahmad sahib reaches Qadian with 14 companions to begin life as Darvesh. June 2 Hadhur orders the urgent shift of the books of the Library of Qadian to Chiniot in Pakistan. So in the middle of June the treasure of books is transferred to Chiniot. June 27 Sadar Anjuman Ahmadiyya of Pakistan deposits the price of the land of Rabwah in the State Treasury. September 16 Hadhur consents to the naming of the new city as “Rabwah”. September 19 There is an inaugural ceremony of the new Markaz, Rabwah, where six residential camps and a big marquee are erected and Hudhur leads prayers. September 20 Hadhur reaches Rabwah at 13:20 from Lahore via Faisalabad for the inauguration ceremony of Rabwah. Hudhur delivers an inaugural address. At the same time the Dervishans of Qadian participate in the prayers and after the prayers 5 lambs are slaughtered. Four lambs in the four corners and one in the centre slaughtered by Hudhur himself. November 7 A committee named as “Majlis-e-Ifta” (equivalent to Jurisprudence Board) is re-established. February Blueprints for the town of Rabwah are prepared. April 15 – 17 The first annual convention is held in Rabwah. Hudhur delivers the inaugural address and the Friday sermon. Nusrat Girls High School situated in Rattan Bagh, Lahore shifts to Rabwah. September 19 Hudhur migrates to Rabwah permanently. October 30, November 1 The first annual gathering of Majlis Khuddam-ul-Ahmadiyya is held. Hudhur announces that from now onwards he will be the President of Majlis Khuddam-ul-Ahmadiyya. December 10 Jamiat-ul-Mubashireen is established in Rabwah. 1948 1949 37 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT The Review of Religions – July 2008KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 April The monthly Misbah (a magazine for ladies) is among the first new magazines launched from Rabwah. May 31 Hudhur lays the foundation stones of Taleem-ul-Islam high school, Qasre-Khilafat, the Offices of Tahrik-i-Jadid, Waqf-i-Jadeed, Sadar Anjuman Ahmadiyya and the central office of Lajna-Imaillah. June 15 Due to a ceasefire in the battlefields of Kashmir, suspension orders for the Furqan Force Battalion are delivered. August Construction of the Mubarak Mosque in Rabwah is completed. Its foundation stone was laid by Hudhur on the 3rd October 1949. February 6 The foundation stone of the office of Majlis Khuddamul Ahmadiyya (central) is laid. March 28 Al-Shirkatul Islamiyyah and the Oriental and Religious Publishing Corporation are established. February 23 Riots break out against Ahmadis in Western Pakistan especially in Punjab province. May 20 Hudhur makes a plan to record the history of Ahmadiyyat (the history from 1957 to 2007 has been published in 19 volumes to date). 1950 1951 1952 1953 38 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT The Review of Religions – July 2008 KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 March 23 – September 25 Hudhur visits Europe for his treatment. July 7 The Zia-ul-Islam press is inaugurated in Rabwah. September 16 Hudhur insistently announces a life devotion scheme for the sake of Islam in Europe, saying that an Ahmadi should not only devote his children but his grandchildren as well. Hudhur issues an important message for the African brothers in which he gives them glad tidings about their bright future. January 20 Hudhur directs Sadr Anjuman Ahmadiyya to preserve the clothes of the Promised Messiah(as) for the future generations. Hudhur also shows intention to gift the historical ring of “alais allah bikafin Abdah” to the Jama’at. February 20 Hudhur lays the foundation stones of Fazl-e-Umar Hospital Rabwah and the office of Majlis Ansar Ullah Markaziyya Rabwah. June 14 Maulana Kamal Yusuf Sahib and Ch. Abdul Latif Sahib reach Gothenburg and establish the Scandinavian Mission. In the beginning it is under the jurisdiction of the German Mission. Hudhur starts the translation of the Holy Qur’an under the title of ‘Tafseer-e-Saghir’ in Murree, Northern Pakistan. It is completed on August 25th 1956 in Nakhla. October 19 The first annual gathering ‘Ijtema’ of Lajna Imaillah, the ladies’ auxilliary organisation, is held in Rabwah. 1956 1954 1955 March 10 After Asr prayers in the Mubarak Mosque, a man named Abdul Hameed attacks Hudhur leaving a deep cut near the main aorta of the neck. Hudhur goes home and leaves a message not to punish the attacker. 39 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT The Review of Religions – July 2008KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 March 21 Majlis-e-Mushawarat passes a historical resolution about the ‘Intikhab-e-Khilafat’ (system of election of a Khalifa by an electoral college) in the light of the address of Hudhur at the occasion of the annual convention 1956. The rules are given the final shape. May 27 The very first ever convention of the Khilafat Day is held. It is now regularly celebrated in Jama’at all over the world. July 7 Jamia Ahmadiyya and Jamiat-ul-Mubashireen are merged and Hudhur appoints respectable Mir Daud Ahmad Sahib as its first Principal, who remained at this post until 1973. July 9 Hudhur briefly discusses the scheme of Waqf-i-Jadid in his sermon of Eid-ul-Adhia and gives its details at the annual convention. At the outset, 7 people devote their lives. November 15 The first edition of Tafseer-e-Sagheer with its index is published. December 27 Hudhur elaborates and explains about the Waqf-i-Jadid scheme to the Jamaat in detail. 1957 1958 February The first group of missionaries under the Waqf-i-Jadid scheme are posted in various parts of Pakistan. March 21 Hudhur inaugurates the Fazal-e-Umar hospital in Rabwah, afterwards Hadhrat sahibzada Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib(ra) lays the foundation stone of the Yadgar Mosque, constructed on the same spot where Hudhur led the first prayer when founding Rabwah on 20th September 1948. April 17 Hudhur delivers his last Friday Sermon. Due to his illness he would not deliver the Friday Sermons thereafter. May 19 A new system of examination for Atfal (boys under 15) is launched as Sitara , Hilal , Qamar and Badar-Atfal. The first examination taken is of Sitara Atfal in which 1883 Atfal participate. 1963 1959 40 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT The Review of Religions – July 2008 KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 March 14 On the completion of 50 years of the second Khilafat, celebrations, prayers and gatherings are held all over the world. 1964 November 8 In the early morning of 8th November at 02:20, the 2nd Khalifa passes away. During the day, thousands of companions see their beloved leader for the very last time. After Isha prayers, a Majlis IntikhabKhilafat committee meeting is held under the supervision of Hadhrat Sahibzada Mirza Aziz Ahmad Sahib in which Hadhrat Sahizada Mirza Nasir Ahmad Sahib is elected as the third Khalifa of Jama’at. All the members of the Khilafat committee pledge allegiance at his hand on the spot and then the waiting crowd of about 5,000 take the oath of allegiance at his hand. The next day on 9th November at 16:30, under the leadership of Hadhrat Khalifat-ul-Masih III, thousands of community members offer funeral prayers and bury the 2nd Khalifa in the special premises of Bahishti Maqbara Rabwah. 1965 December 19- 21 The first annual convention of the 3rd Khilafat is held attended by 80,000. News about the Jalsa is broadcast on Radio Pakistan. 1965 – Milestones of the 3rd Khilafat 1966 June 24 Reconstruction of Langar Khana (community kitchens) of the Promised Messiah(as) is started. In June 1868 it was revealed to the Promised Messiah(as) that “Kings would seek blessings from thy clothes” and this is fulfilled when the president of Jamaat Ahamadiyya The Gambia is appointed President and acting Governor General. He asks for the blessed clothes of the Promised Messiah(as) from Hadhrat Khaliftul Masih III. The day he receives the clothes he is announced as the Governor General. October 28 Hudhur lays the foundation stone of the Aqsa Mosque Rabwah. 41 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT The Review of Religions – July 2008KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 1967 The mission in Gothenburg, Sweden is formally established. The number of Yugoslavian Ahmadis reaches 33. September 12 Hudhur announces a scheme to commit the first 17 verses of Surat Al-Baqarah to memory in Karachi. December 26- 28 Technology starts to be adopted in the Jalsa kitchens. A year earlier, natural gas is used for the first time for cooking, now the chapattis are made with machines for the first time. June 15 On the14th centenary of the completion of the revelation of the Holy Qur’an, an exhibition of the translations of the Holy Qur’an is held in Darul Mutala’a in Karachi. Hudhur revises the challenge to Christianity in Copenhagen originally given by the Promised Messiah(as). If they are able to find as much knowledge and truth in the Bible as compared to Surah Fatihah (the first Chapter of the Holy Qur’an), the prize would be increased from 500 rupees to 50,000 rupees and that would be awarded to the person who could meet the challenge. July 21 Hudhur inaugurates the Nusrat mosque in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is the first mosque of that country. July 30 Hudhur lays the foundation stone of the Mahmud Hall in the Fazl Mosque complex in London. 1968 1969 42 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT The Review of Religions – July 2008 KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 1970 January 18 Hudhur lays the foundation stone of Khilafat Library in Rabwah. April 4-8 Hudhur visits Europe and West Africa. Hudhur addresses 10 press conferences, attends 12 receptions, graces 4 official dinners, inaugurates 5 mosques, lays the foundation stone of 4 mosques, meets six Heads of State, addresses over 1,000 scholars in two universities, gives several interviews to radio and television and shakes the hands of millions of Africans. Hudhur meets the President of Ghana, K. A. Afrifa. May 2 Hudhur meets Gambian president Daud Ajwara. During his stay in The Gambia the idea of the ‘Nusrat Jehan scheme’ is put in his mind (by Allah the Almighty) that a Hundred Thousand Pounds should be spent on these African countries. May 23 Hudhur inaugurates the Mahmud Hall in London. 1971 September 15 An assassination attempt is made on Mr. M. M. Ahmad the adviser to the President of Pakistan by Muhammad Aslam Qureshi (about whose alleged murder Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih IV would be falsely accused many years later) October 3 Hudhur inaugurates the Khilafat Library in Rabwah. 1972 March 1 Hudhur establishes ‘Majlis-e-Sehat’ (health committee) to fulfill the need of physical exercise and sports for the people of Rabwah. July 7 Hudhur announces a program to publish one million copies of translations of the Holy Qur’an in the next five years. In the same year Hudhur establishes a department for printing and publishing the Holy Qur’an. 43 REVIEW OF RELIGIONS The Review of Religions – July 2008KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 1973 January 26 Hudhur announces a plan for the planting of 10,000 plants in Rabwah in order to make it green and beautiful. February 18 Hudhur lays the foundation stone of the Jadeed Press, Rabwah (now the office of Daily Al-Fazl). 1974 May 29 The students of Nishter College Multan spark trouble at Rabwah railway station which starts a series of violent attacks all over Pakistan and lasts for a year. Many Ahmadis sacrifice their lives and belongings. August 5-10, 20-24 Hudhur is questioned in the National Assembly of Pakistan for 52 hours. September 7 The National Assembly of Pakistan declares Ahmadis as non- Muslims for legislative and constitutional needs through a constitutional act. This fulfils the prophecy of Prophet Muhammad(saw) about the one sect attaining salvation and the 72 other sects who unite to ex-communicate Ahmadis as non-Muslims. 1978 May 29 20,000 copies of the English translation of the Holy Qur’an are published in the USA. 1979 April 4 Former Prime Minister of Pakistan Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto is hanged in Rawalpindi at the age of 52 following a murder case. It was Bhutto who had overseen the declaration of Ahmadis as non-Muslims and allowed the rioting against the community. 44 The Review of Religions – July 2008 KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT 1980 May Jama’at Ahmadiyya Canada distributes a hundred copies of the Holy Qur’an in the North Pole, the first time that the message of Ahmadiyyat reaches there. October 9 Hudhur lays the foundation stone of the Basharat Mosque in Spain, the first new mosque in Spain for five hundred years since the demise of Al-Andalus. November 9 The night of 9th November is the beginning of the fifteenth century of Islam. With the new moon, a hundred sheep are sacrificed in the name of Allah, the first one by Hudhur himself. 1981 December 27 Hudhur presents the Fourteen cornered Star of Ahmadiyyat. 1982 May 21 Hudhur delivers his last Friday Sermon in Rabwah. June 9 Hadhrat Khalifat-ul-Masih III passes away at Baitul Fazl Islamabad. His sacred body is brought to Rabwah and on June 10th the election for the fourth Khalifa is held in Masjid Mubarak, Rabwah. After Asr prayers, Hadhrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad sahib is announced as Khalifatul Masih IV and leads the funeral prayer. 1982 – Milestones of the 4th Khilafat June 11 Hudhur delivers his first Friday Sermon in Aqsa mosque, Rabwah. He advises the community not to pass formal resolutions but to kindle the light of virtue and high merits. Hudhur sends his first message to the community through Al-Fazl asking members to pray for the people of Palastine. October 29 Hudhur announces the Buyut-ul-Hamd colony scheme for needy people and launches a competition for Ahmadi engineers to design new low cost housing. November Hudhur announces a plan to establish the Jama’at in 100 countries by Centenary year (1989). 45The Review of Religions – July 2008KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT 1983 Ahmadiyyat is now established in 80 countries. February Maulvi Muhammad Aslam Quraishi goes missing from Mirajke District Sialkot. Jama’at Ahmadiyya and Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih IV are falsely implicated for murder while brutal laws are promulgated. [In 1988 the Maulvi re-appeared from Iran. During his absence many ulema (clergymen) submitted under oath that the leader of Ahmadiyya Jama’at got him killed.] August 22 – October 14 Hudhur visits Karachi and Sindh and then travels abroad to visit the Far East and Australia. 1984 April 26 The president of Pakistan General Zia ul Haq implements the Ahmadiyya prohibition Ordinance XX. According to it, Ahmadis are forbidden the use of Islamic symbols and preaching. The objective of this ordinance is to arrest Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih IV and to cut his communication with the Jama’at. Numerous members of the Jama’at are arrested and cases are filed after this Ordinance. April 30 Hudhur arrives in London via Amsterdam where he would reside and from where he would lead the community for the rest of his life. May 4 Hudhur delivers his first Friday Sermon at the Fazl Mosque in London. July 20 Hudhur begins a series of sermons in reply to the ‘white paper’ of the government of Pakistan in which allegations were leveled against the Jama’at. These sermons continue until May 17. Later these sermons are published in Urdu and Arabic ask ‘Zahaqa Albatill’ (falsehood has perished). December 12 The Pakistan Government seals the Ziaul Islam press and suspends the Daily Al Fazl. Jalsa Salana and Ijtemas are also prohibited and have not taken place since 1984 in Pakistan. 1985 January 1 A radio program of the Jama’at is broadcast from Norway for an hour twice a week in Urdu, English and Scandinavian languages. 46 The Review of Religions – July 2008 KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT 1987 June 4 Hudhur delivers a lecture in Switzerland titled “Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge and Truth”, which was published later as a book with the same title 1988 January – February Hudhur tours the countries of West Africa (The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria) and meets many of the national leaders. May A monthly magazine Al-Taqwa is launched in Arabic from London. Hudhur gives a warning to the enemies of Ahmadiyyat, in a series of sermons which ends on 3rd and 10th June during which he gives a Mubahela Challenge to all the enemies. This is a prayer duel invoking the curse of God on the liars. July 10 Maulvi Aslam Quraishi(who disappeared on February 17th, 1983 from Sialkot and was apparently killed by Hadhrat Khalifat-ul- Massih V) suddenly reappears in Lahore from Iran. The police make him appear in front of the press. This great sign is fulfilled exactly after a month of the Mubahila Challenge. August 12 Hudhur warns the enemies especially General Zia in the light of a dream. August 17 President General Zia ul Haq is killed in an air crash near Bahawalpur. His plane continuously burns for three hours and all that remains of his body that can be recognised is his teeth. September Hudhur visits East Africa and the islands of Mauritius, Reunion and Rodrigues, the first such visit to the region. 1989 February 28 Hudhur declares the infamous book ‘Satanic Verses’ by Salman Rushdie, an intense conspiracy against Islam, and instructs scholars to respond to the book. March 22 An interview of Hudhur is broadcast from BBC London on the occasion of the celebrations of the centenary of the Ahmadiyya Community. 47The Review of Religions – July 2008KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT 1991 March 23 This marks the start of the second century of Ahmadiyyat. The celebrations of the centenary continue for a whole year. Ahmadis all over the world celebrate the centenary of Ahmadiyyat and arrange special programs for the occasion. But the Government of Pakistan imposes restrictions on the celebrations of the centenary. From March 23rd to 25th the display of lights, distribution of sweets, and the display of posters is strictly prohibited in Rabwah. This law is strictly enforced and many Ahmadis are arrested. Hudhur delivers the first Friday sermon of the second century in Islamabad, England broadcast live to Germany and Mauritius via telephone. Hudhur says that on the beginning of the new century, Allah has given him the gift of “Assalamu Alaikum”. Five years of persecution in Pakistan have resulted in the following criminal cases against Ahmadis: – Appearing as Muslims …………….. 151 – Putting on a Kalima badge……….. 599 – Writing the Kalima………………….. 364 – Calling the Azaan……………………. 178 – Distributing literature………………. 396 – Giving the greeting of Peace…….. 48 118 Ahmadi mosques have had the Kalima scrubbed from them and 19 have been sealed with a further 9 demolished. 18 mosques have been burnt, 25 Ahmadis martyred and 19 Ahmadi graves have been desecrated. December 16 – January 16 (1992) Hudhur makes a historical visit to Qadian and India. Hudhur inaugurates the 100th annual convention of Qadian, the first time that a Khalifa has returned since the partition of India amidst emotional scenes. Hudhur’s biography written by Ian Adamson ‘A man of God’ is published. 48 The Review of Religions – July 2008 KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT 1992 August 28 Hudhur announces the establishment of an international organisation called ‘Humanity First’ for the service of mankind. It was properly established in 1995. August 31 Hudhur’s Friday Sermon is transmitted around Europe for the first time. 1993 February 27 Hudhur starts a series of lectures on the Holy Qur’an on MTA. June 16 – July 6 Hudhur visits Norway and Sweden. On the 24th, Hudhur arrives at the nearest place to the North Pole called North Cap. It is the highest altitude location on the planet. He is the first Khalifa to offer all 5 prayers in congregation with his entourage at this place. On 25th Hudhur leads the Friday prayer and the rest of the prayers as well from the North Pole. And thus the prophecy is fulfilled in which it was said that the days in the time of the Anti-Christ will be extraordinarily longer. August 1 On the occasion of Jalsa Salana UK, the first ceremony of the International Bai’at is held. On this occasion 204,308 people of 115 nations from 84 countries get the opportunity to do the Bai’at live and simultaneously. On this historic moment Hudhur is wearing the coat of the Promised Messiah(as). 49The Review of Religions – July 2008KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT 1994 January 7 The permanent transmission of Muslim Television Ahmadiyya (MTA) begins from London with programming initially available 12 hours a day globally. The Weekly Al-Fazl International banned in Pakistan is re-started from London. March 23 Hudhur starts a Homeopathy class by delivering lectures on MTA, after 200 classes a selection is made from them and later published as a book named ‘Homeopathy yane elaj bilmithal’. Many editions of this book have been published. Special prayers are held on the centenary of the signs of Lunar and Solar eclipses for the Promised Messiah(as) and there are ceremonies and programs to commemorate this around the world. 1996 April 1 MTA starts 24-hour global transmission. June 2 A century after the Promised Messiah’s book ‘Philosophy of the Teachings of Islam’ is marked by seminars, exhibitions and also the translation of the book into 30 languages. 1998 November The foundation stone of the modern Noor Hospital in Qadian is laid. The foundation stone of the first mosque is laid on Hudhur’s appeal of 100 mosques in Germany. The Punjab assembly of Pakistan passes a resolution changing the name of Rabwah to ‘Chenab Nagar’. 50 The Review of Religions – July 2008 KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT 1999 October 19 Hudhur lays the foundation stone for the new Baitul Futuh Mosque complex in Morden, London. 2000 June 19 – July 11 Hudhur visits Indonesia. He is the first Khalifa to visit the country and there are massive crowds wherever he goes. 2001 March 13 MTA International commences digital transmission. October 19 Hudhur starts a movement to deliver the message of Ahmadiyyat to 10% of the global population in the 21st Century. 2003 April 19 – 23 The Beloved 4th Khalifa passes away in London due to heart failure at 09:30 leaving behind millions of grieving hearts. The announcement is made to a global audience on MTA. Hudhur’s body is laid in the Mahmood Hall for people to have one last glance of him. The meeting of the Majlis Intikhab Khilafat takes place in the Fazl Mosque after Isha prayers with thousands of devoted Ahmadis sat in silence on Gressenhall Road. Hadhrat Sahibzada Mirza Masroor Ahmad sahib(aba) is announced as the 5th Khalifa live on MTA where millions pledge allegiance to the new Khalifa through MTA. In an emotional ceremony the next day, Hudhur’s body is then taken from the London Mosque to Islamabad where the funeral prayers are led by Khalifatul Masih V and then Hudhur is buried in Islamabad. 51The Review of Religions – July 2008KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT 2003 – Milestones of the 5th Khilafat July 25-27 The first Jalsa Salana of the blessed era of the fifth khilafat is held in Islamabad, UK. Hudhur announces the establishment of the ‘Tahir Foundation’ entrusted with the task of publishing the speeches and sermons of Hadhrat Khalifat-ul-Masih IV. August 20-31 Hudhur visits Germany for the first time as Khalifa. October 3 Hudhur inaugurates Baitul Futuh mosque in London, the largest Mosque complex in Western Europe with a capacity of 10,000. 2004 March 13-25 Hudhur visits Ghana, the country that he spent so many years in, and is enthusiastically welcomed with the words ‘welcome back Hudhur’. March 25 – April 3 Hudhur becomes the first Khalifa to visit Burkina Faso in Western Africa. August 1 Huzur calls upon the members of Jama’at all over the world to join the institution of Wassiyat with the following words: “I call upon the Jama’at to join this heavenly institution for the sake of their spiritual progress as well as that of their later generation, therefore, come forward and make sure that this year at least fifteen thousand new members join this institution so that we can happily say that at least fifty thousand people have joined this institution of Wassiyat in a hundred years” September 3 Jalsa Salana Switzerland is graced for the first time with the presence of Hudhur. 52 The Review of Religions – July 2008 KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT 2005 January – July Hudhur visits Spain, East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda), Canada. September 16 Hudhur graces the collective Jalsa Salana of three Scandinavian countries (Sweden, Norway and Denmark). December Hudhur visits Mauritius and then goes to India for the Qadian Jalsa. His Friday Sermon from Aqsa Mosque in Qadian is broadcast around the world. The Qadian Jalsa is the second since partition to be graced by the presence of the Khalifa and is attended by 80,000 people. 2006 April – June In a very busy schedule, Hudhur visits Singapore, Australia, Fiji, New Zealand, Japan, Belgium and Germany. 2007 January 2 Hudhur lays the foundation stone of the Khadija Mosque in Berlin fulfilling a prophecy of Hadhrat Musleh Maud, the 2nd Khalifa(ra) of February 2 1923. April 29 Hadhrat sahibzada Mirza Wasim Ahmad sahib, grandson of the Promised Messiah(as) passes away in Qadian at the age of 80 years. He had remained in Qadian after partition to protect the sacred places of the Jama’at. Hudhur described his selfless services and sacrifices in his Friday Sermon of May 4th. The Jama’at spreads to four new countries: Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana and Haiti. The translation of the Holy Qur’an is completed in a local language of Burkina Faso. Elsewhere, 186 new Mission Houses are opened around the world and the first missionary for 80 years is sent to Hungary. 53The Review of Religions – July 2008KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 MILESTONES OF KHILAFAT 2008 April Hudhur visits the Ghana Jalsa. May 27 Hudhur graces the Khilafat Centenary celebrations at London’s ExCel Centre broadcast on MTA. There are similar celebrations all around the world including Rabwah which is lit with oil-lamps. June 9 The situation in Indonesia worsens for Ahmadis. Several mosques and mission centres are attacked and destroyed by angry mobs. This follows a decision by President Susilo Yudhoyono to sign a decree ordering Ahmadis to stop practising their faith or to face possible imprisonment. NOTES FOR THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS Verse references to the Holy Qur’an item count ‘Bismillah…’ (In the Name of Allah…) as the first verse of each Chapter. In some non-standard texts, this is not counted. Should the reader refer to such texts, the verse quoted in The Review of Religions will be found a verse earlier, i.e. at one verse less than the number quoted. In this journal, for the ease of non-Muslim readers, ‘(saw)’ or ‘saw’ after the words, ‘Holy Prophet’, or the name ‘Muhammad’, are used. They stand for ‘Sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam’ meaning ‘peace and blessings of Allah be upon him’. Likewise, the letters ‘(as)’ or ‘as’ after the name of all other prophets is an abbreviation meaning ‘peace be upon him’ derived from ‘Alaihis salatu wassalam’ which are words that a Muslim utters out of respect whenever he or she comes across that name. The abbreviation ‘ra’ or (ra) stands for ‘Radhiallahu Ta’ala anhu and is used for Companions of a Prophet, meaning Allah be pleased with him or her (when followed by the relevant Arabic pronoun). Finally, ‘ru’ or (ru) for Rahemahullahu Ta’ala means the Mercy of Allah the Exalted be upon him. In keeping with current universal practice, local transliterations of names of places are preferred to their anglicised versions, e.g. Makkah instead of Mecca, etc. 54 The Review of Religions – July 2008 KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 Introduction Through His prophets and scriptures, Allah guides humans from time to time as to how they should conduct their lives. It is incumbent upon all believers to not only act upon this Divine guidance but to also share this guidance with people around them and to pass it down to coming generations. The challenge is to ensure that the guidance is passed on to new generations and nations without any contamination and distortion. These crucial objectives call for a strong organisation which, in turn, demands a potent and revered leadership to succeed the prophets. In Islam, such a leader is called a Khalifa. The authority of the institution of Khilafat is twofold: temporal and spiritual. In view of the magni- tude, the sanctity and pervasive- ness of the mission assigned, the Khalifa is elected for life. He may consult with the repre- sentatives of the Community in matters of vital importance but the final decision in such matters rests with him alone. Nothing overrides his authority unless it is contrary to God’s Law. To comprehend the tremendous administrative authority vested in this one man, one needs to grasp the ambit of the responsibilities he is charged with, which, as briefly discussed above, are to preserve and spread the guidance revealed through the prophet. To fully comprehend the powers and responsibilities of the Khalifa, one should grasp the source of the Khalifa’s authority, his mandate, the nature of his authority and how he is expected to exercise his authority. by Atif Munawar Mir – Mississauga, Canada Temporal and Spiritual Authority of the Institution of Khilafat 55The Review of Religions – July 2008KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 Source of the Khalifa’s Authority Chosen by Allah Allah says in the Holy Qur’an: Allah has promised to those among you who believe and do good works that He will surely make them Successors in the earth, as He made Successors from among those who were before them; and that He will surely establish for them their religion which He has chosen for them; and that He will surely give them in exchange security and peace after their fear: They will worship Me, and they will not associate anything with Me. Then whoso is ungrateful after that, they will be the rebellious. (Ch.24:V.56) This verse embodies a promise that those who believe and do good works will be vouchsafed both spiritual and temporal leadership. The promise is initially made to the whole Muslim nation but the institution of Khilafat will take a palpable form in the person of certain individuals who will be the Holy Prophet’s successors and the representatives of the whole nation. The promise of the establishment of Khilafat is clear and unmistakable. Thus, Khilafat is a blessing that is only vouchsafed to such people as tread on the path of righteousness.1 The verse also connotes that the Khalifa is chosen by Allah whereas seemingly it is the people who elect him. How can these two facts be reconciled? Imagine the passing away of a messenger of God. How does a community feel? What was the condition of Muslims when the Holy Prophet Muhammad(saw) passed away? How did Ahmadis behave on the demise of the Promised Messiah(as)? The believers turn to Allah with utmost devotion and pray fervently to seek His help and guidance in choosing the Prophet’s successor. Allah listens to the prayers of His true and humble servants and in keeping TEMPORAL AND SPIRITUAL AUTHORITY OF THE INSTITUTION OF KHILAFAT 56 The Review of Religions – July 2008 KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 with His promise guides them to choose the most righteous one as their Khalifa. The appointment of the Khalifa thus is not the doing of the people. It is Allah’s doing. People act only as instruments in the manifestation of God’s Will. They only cast their votes. It is just as a farmer plants the seeds but it is Allah who causes them to sprout and grow.2 Mandate of Khilafat The verse cited above says that Allah blesses those who do good works with the institution of Khilafat. A question may be asked as to why the community needs Khilafat when it is already righteous. The verse answers this question by pointing out that doing good works does not necessarily translate into the establishment of religion. For example, after the Promised Messiah(as) passed away, he left a very righteous community but that community needed the guidance by the institution of Khilafat to become capable of continuing to spread the message of Islam to the corners of the world. It is with the added aid of the establishment of Khilafat that the message of the Promised Messiah(as) has been carried to the corners of the globe. More importantly the presence of the Khalifa serves as a constant reminder to believers not to deviate from the way of the righteous. This verse, clearly lays down the mandate of Khilafat. The mandate of Khilafat is not to build empires and seek worldly glory but to keep the love of Allah burning in the hearts of the members, i.e., to ensure that they worship Allah alone and they do not associate anything with Him. This indeed is a great responsibility that Allah has placed on the shoulders of the Khalifa. Nature of Authority Khalifa & State The Khalifa’s main role is the spiritual welfare and guidance of the believers. He is a head of a religious organisation. However, when the governance of the state TEMPORAL AND SPIRITUAL AUTHORITY OF THE INSTITUTION OF KHILAFAT 57The Review of Religions – July 2008KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 comes in then according to Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) the Islamic system of government should separate the institution of Khilafat from the State, meaning that there will be a Head of State who will take care of political, social and economic matters. The system of Khilafat will be a parallel structure for the spiritual welfare of people and to provide guidance to the State. In other words, the Khalifa will act as a guide to State and should in his opinion, not administer the State. Why were the Khulafa-e- Rashideen heads of the Islamic State, commander of the Muslim armies and chief justices of the judicial system? The explanation could be that the realities of the modern world are different from 1400 years ago. The concept of State has taken root in the modern world and the operations of the government have become enormously complex such that conflicts between the needs of the community and political preferences need to be avoided. Khalifa Admonishes and Guides The Khalifa regulates and administers community affairs. He has the authority to make decisions that affect the moral welfare of the community. However, his responsibility is to admonish, not to coerce. To a Western mind, thanks to the media, the idea of a religious leader (particularly of the Islamic faith) conjures up images of a Taleban-like person whose understanding of Islam is far- removed from reality. Islam does offer guidelines and does outline some restrictions as to how individuals should navigate their daily lives but it does not advocate compulsion. For instance, Allah says in the Holy Qur’an: There should be no compulsion in religion. Surely, right has become distinct from wrong; so whosoever refuses to be led by those who transgress, and believes in Allah, has surely grasped a strong handle which knows no breaking. TEMPORAL AND SPIRITUAL AUTHORITY OF THE INSTITUTION OF KHILAFAT 58 The Review of Religions – July 2008 KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 And Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. (Ch.2: V.257) In this verse, Allah emphasizes that religion should not be imposed by force. Individuals are free to make choices but those choices have consequences. If the individual follows the path shown by Allah, the conse- quences will be positive. Now if individuals are free to make choices, then what is the role of the Khalifa? The role of the Khalifa is the same as that of the Prophet and that is to admonish as the Holy Qur’an says: Admonish, therefore, for you are but an admonisher. (Ch.88: V.22) Khalifa Consults The Khalifa is advised by the Holy Qur’an to consult: …and consult them in matters of administration; and when thou art determined, then put thy trust in Allah. Surely, Allah loves those who put their trust in Him. (Ch.3: V.160) Hadhrat ‘Umar(ra), as Khalifa, in one of his early sermons appealed to his followers in the following terms: “In running the State, you are my partners. Help me with your sound advice. If I follow the right path laid down by God and His Prophet, follow me. If I deviate, correct me. Strengthen me with your advice and suggestion”. 3 His appeal clearly illustrates two principles: the authority of the Khalifa is circumscribed by Islamic Law and the Khalifa can consult. Hadhrat Abu Bakr(ra) after becoming Khalifa, said these words: “O People, I have been indeed appointed over you, though I am not the best among you. If I do well, then help me; and if I act wrongly then correct me”.4 TEMPORAL AND SPIRITUAL AUTHORITY OF THE INSTITUTION OF KHILAFAT 59The Review of Religions – July 2008KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 Khalifa and Power of Prayers Having been chosen through the Will of Allah, the Khalifa holds a special place in the sight of Allah. As such, he is accorded a distinct status in regards to the acceptance of prayers. Since he is to help individuals and society to reflect the attributes of Allah, the granting of such special favour to the Khalifa only makes sense. The Ahmadiyya Community is fortunate in this regard in that the members not only see but experience these wonderful phenomena in their everyday life. Allah listens to the Khalifa’s prayers and assists him against all challenges. Take the example of Khilafat in Ahmadiyya. It has faced many obstacles and conspiracies designed to wipe out the Jama’at. In almost all of the situations, the worldly power of the opponents was far superior to that of the Community. In the 1930s and 1950s, the Ahrari fitna conspired to wipe out the Community. But under the guidance and prayers of Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra), the Community emerged from these conspiracies unscathed. In 1974, the Community faced street violence. The so-called democratically elected govern- ment of Pakistan sided with extremists and, instead of helping Ahmadis, robbed them of their basic religious rights. The opposition and persecution steadily got worse in the 1980s culminating in an attempted arrest of Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih IV(ru) and legislated against Ahmadis if they chose to practise Islam. In these challenging times, it was the guidance and prayers of Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih III(ru) and Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih IV(ru) that ushered the Community into a new era of progress and expansion. Exercising of Authority Principles of Exercising Authority The Khalifa is required by Allah to exercise his authority in keeping with the dictates of righteousness. Verily, Allah is with those who are righteous and those who TEMPORAL AND SPIRITUAL AUTHORITY OF THE INSTITUTION OF KHILAFAT 60 The Review of Religions – July 2008 KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 do good. (Ch.16: V.129) Allah defines righteousness in the Holy Qur’an in the following words: …truly righteous is he who believes in Allah and the Last Day and the angels and the Book and the Prophets, and spends his money for love of Him, on the kindred and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and those who ask for charity, and for ransoming the captives; and who observes prayer and pays the Zakat; and those who fulfil their promise when they have made one, and the patient in poverty and afflictions and the steadfast in time of war; it is these who have proved truthful and it is these who are the God- fearing. (Ch.2: V.178) As the verse indicates, Allah has set very high standards for humans to become righteous. Is it possible for the Khalifa to exercise power in a righteous manner when the history of mankind suggests that to maintain power, deception or selective honesty is a necessity? Historically, many philosophers have given various methods for how power holders should exercise power. Plato emphasises the importance of knowledge in order to rule. Machiavelli stresses the need for deception to rule. For example, Machiavelli states: “For a long time, I have not said what I believed, nor do I ever believe what I say, and if indeed sometimes I do happen to tell the truth, I hide it among so many lies that it is hard to find.”5 In the modern world, the shades of Machiavellian strategy are visible in the leadership styles of politicians and dictators. The secret to rule in the modern world depends more on image and style than substance. The institution of Khilafat, on the other hand, is required to employ TEMPORAL AND SPIRITUAL AUTHORITY OF THE INSTITUTION OF KHILAFAT 61The Review of Religions – July 2008KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 righteousness (Taqwa) when discharging its responsibilities and exercising its authority. Taqwa is a broad concept but from the point of view of governance, it means justice and equity. The Khalifa is not supposed to manipulate the public or appeal to the majority. The criterion for his decision- making is one and only one: how would his decisions be liked by Allah. This reliance on Taqwa makes perfect logical sense given the fact that the Khalifa is representing Allah’s Will and Allah would never deceive people in matters of religion. Establishing the will of Allah through deception and compulsion militates against the very attributes of Allah. Is Taqwa a Realistic Strategy in Governance? The modern mind might reject the notion that Taqwa can be a realistic strategy for the purposes of governance. However, when we look at the history of Khilafat in Islam, it becomes clear that as long as Taqwa was the guide of the Khalifa, Islam grew stronger and became popular with the masses. If we glance at the lifestyle of the Khulafa-e- Rashideen and the Khulafa of the Promised Messiah(as), it is clear that they lived a simple life which is an important prerequisite to honest gover- nance. Despite the fact that they were chosen for life as Khalifa, they set the examples of impressive leadership styles. Take the example of Hadhrat ‘Umar(ra). He was able to exercise his authority most effectively by living righteously. His clothes were simple. He ate simple food like his followers. He is often cited as owning just a single shirt and that too patched up. He slept on a bed of palm leaves just as his followers did. As the influence of Islam spread, Hadhrat ‘Umar(ra) appointed governors in different lands, but also tried to ensure that they stayed faithful and dutiful rather than getting embroiled in the trappings of power that he himself had also rejected. Khuzaymah ibn Thabit records: TEMPORAL AND SPIRITUAL AUTHORITY OF THE INSTITUTION OF KHILAFAT 62 The Review of Religions – July 2008 KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 “Whenever ‘Umar appointed a Governor, he wrote to him and made a condition on him that he should not ride a birdhaun (heavy non-Arab horse from Turkey or Greece), nor eat delicacies, nor dress in finery, nor lock his door against the needy.” 6 From this we get a sense of ‘Umar’s own stance on duty and modesty. It was based on his personal lifestyle that he could place such demands on his subordinates. Other Khulafa are also shining examples of simplicity. Hadhrat ‘Uthman(ra), despite being very wealthy lived humbly and wore ordinary clothes and ate simple food.7 He would purchase land and construct purpose-built markets whose rents were then endowed for the feeding of the poor.8 He believed that those who had been entrusted with high office should have the morality to match their responsibilities.9 Hadhrat ‘Ali(ra) was no different. After becoming Khalifa, he continued to live a simple life and remained focused on the service of his community. Some reports cite that his meals consisted of a cup of milk, a piece of bread and some vegetables. He lived in a simple house just like other Muslims around him.10 His focus was not self-projection but the betterment of the community. When Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih I(ra) became Khalifa, he continued to live simply and used his temporal authority to alleviate poverty. For instance, under his directions, a fund was set up to provide assistance to orphans, the needy and deserving students.11 Someone inquired of Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih I(ra) as to what type of conduct is needed for Khilafat. He answered: ‘…this grace (Khilafat) is attracted by the service to humanity and I have been inspired by this sentiment since my early youth. I have always been keen to serve everyone without distinction of caste, creed, country, or TEMPORAL AND SPIRITUAL AUTHORITY OF THE INSTITUTION OF KHILAFAT 63The Review of Religions – July 2008KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 nationality both intellectually and practically.’12 Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) strongly believed that the system of Al-Wasiyyat had a twofold purpose: to spread Islam and to wipe out poverty from the face of the earth. He laid down his vision of economic equity and social justice in his speech, which is now published in the form of a book, Nizam-e-Nau (The New World Order). He used his temporal authority to initiate various schemes such as Tahrik Jadid and founded auxiliary organisations such as Majlis Khuddamul Ahmadiyya and Majlis Ansarullah. These initiatives by him went a long way to promote the spiritual as well as worldly welfare of the community. Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih III(ru) used his authority to introduce the Nusrat Jehan scheme, which was designed to help Africa recover from its colonial past. Under this scheme, numerous schools and hospitals were established in Africa which continue to render a laudable service to the people of the continent and are thereby playing a great role both in the spiritual and worldly realms. Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih IV(ru), among other initiatives, founded Humanity First. Its mandate is to alleviate poverty, suffering and ignorance around the globe through the donations and time of volunteers. Moreover, Khalifatul Masih IV(ru) launched Muslim Television Ahmadiyya (MTA) that is designed to broadcast spiritual, religious, historical, economic and social programs. Needless to say that Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih V has effec- tively exercised the spiritual and temporal powers to extend the visions and initiatives of his predecessors and the Promised Messiah(as) into new horizons. Conclusion The extent of the Khalifa’s spiritual and temporal authority is best grasped when one understands the source, mandate TEMPORAL AND SPIRITUAL AUTHORITY OF THE INSTITUTION OF KHILAFAT 64 The Review of Religions – July 2008 KHILAFAT: Special Edition 10 and nature of his authority and how Allah expects the Khalifa to exercise his authority. The Khalifa is chosen by Allah. He is charged with enormous responsibilities. In keeping with the magnitude of his respon- sibilities, he is vested with vast authority both in the temporal and spiritual realms. He is advised in the Holy Qur’an to consult before making decisions in the affairs of the community. However, in all matters, the final decision rests with him. Needless to say, his decisions should not be contrary to Islamic law. His administrative authority is limited to running the operations of the religious organisation. However, his duties may include guiding the government of the State to ensure that State policies do not violate Islamic principles. It should be borne in mind that the exercise of the Khalifa’s authority and influence are to be based on righteousness and righteousness alone. REFERENCES: 1. The Holy Qur’an with English Translation and Short Commentary, edited by Malik Ghulam Farid, p.772 2. See website: http://www.alislam.org/library/links/ap point_God.html 3 Review of Religions, November 2007, p.48. 4 Review of Religions, November 2007, p.23. 5. Nicolo Machiavelli, in a letter to Francesco Guicciardini, May 17, 1521. 6. Review of Religions, November 2007, p.56. 7. Review of Religions, December 2007, p.39. 8. Rogerson, Barnaby, The Heirs of Prophet Muhammad,Omar and the Great Victories, p.171 9. Ibid, 171. 10. Review of Religions, December 2007, p. 58. 11. Khan, Muhammad Zafrulla, Hadhrat Maulawi Nur-ud-Din Khalifatul Masih I, p.195. 12. Khan, Muhammad Zafrulla, Hadhrat Maulawi Nur-ud-Din Khalifatul Masih I, p.199. TEMPORAL AND SPIRITUAL AUTHORITY OF THE INSTITUTION OF KHILAFAT
A chronological review year by year of the major events and milestones in the first century of Khulafa-e-Ahmadiyya including the migrations from Qadian to Rabwah and then from Rabwah to London, and the establishment of administrative bodies and schemes.