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23 The Holy Prophet on Idolatory by Nur-ud-Din Muneer William Muir, Montgommery Watt and many other orientalists allege that the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of God be on him), had at one time compromised with idolatory and invested the Arab goddesses, Lat, Uzza and Manat with the power of interceding with Allah. They maintain that the verses of the Holy Quran conferring this status on these idols were later on replaced by condemnatory verses. According to Muir, the satanic verses continued to be a part of the Holy Quran for at least “some days, probably indeed longer to allow of the report going forth and reaching the exiles (Muslim refugees in Abyssinia) in the shape sufficient to inspire them with confidence (and return to Mecca)i. Montgommery Watt asserts that these verses, before abrogation subsisted in the Quran for “some weeks or even months’^. Brockelmann says that the Holy Prophet’ ‘disavowed (the satanic verses) the very next day “3. This wide difference of opinion about the duration of the alleged compromise itself shows that the whole story is subjective and a clever device to malign the Holy Prophet, the greatest Iconoclast of all times. In proof of this stand, they cite some traditions and a few verses of the Holy Quran. Before we examine them let us first set down below the story as told by them. They say: “In view of the low status of his followers and of the prestige which he would gain if the Quraysh joined his faith, the Holy Prophet was contemplating to acceding to their wishes and defy their idols. Then on one day, nearly at the end of the 5th year of his Call, he came beside the Ka’ba, where some of his followers were already sitting. Seating himself near them he began to recite the chapter al-Najm. When he reached the verse mentioning Arab goddesses, Satan in response to his longing, threw upon his tongue the following verses: Now tell me about al-Lat, Uzza and Manat, The third besides, These are exalted females, whose intercession Is to be sought after; Now when the Holy Prophet ended the recitation of the surah with the verse, “So prostrate yourselves before Allah and worship Him”, the whole congregation prostrated themselves on the ground. The Quraysh were very happy that a compromise had at last been effected between them and the Holy Prophet. 1. Life of Muhammed Page 83 2. Muhammed at Mecca Page 103 3. History of The Islamic People Page 14 REVIEW OF RELIGIONS 24 But afterwards, realising that the compromise would harm his mission more than benefit it, and at the remonstration of Gabriel on his aberration, these verses were replaced with the following: What! for you the males and for Him the females? That, indeed, is an unfair division; These are but names which you have named — you and Your fathers — for which Allah sent down no authority. (53:21-23). >. In the meantime the rumour spread that the Quraysh had joined Islam. The believers who had gone to Abyssinia, some two or three months before were very happy at hearing this news, and considering that they would not be persecuted now, hurried back to Mecca. They were, however, sorely disappointed to learn that it was only a hoax. Most of them returned to Abyssinia, but some stayed on in the town. This in brief is the story of the “compromise” as told by orientalists on the authority of Wakidi and Tabari and which they exultingly call the ‘Lapse of Muhammad”4. When we look into the narratives which Muri and Montgommery Watt have cited and of which a summary has been given above, we find that they are full of inconsistencies and fall short of the standards accepted for credibility. The very first allegation relegating the early Muslims to a low and humble status is contrary to facts. The stories quoted by Montgommery Watt on the authority of Tabari depicts them as “the slaves of so and so and the clients of so and so”5, which is not true. With the exception of a few slaves, the early Muslims, who had joined Islam by the year 5th of the Holy Prophet’s Call, according to Montgommery Watt, were free and independent men, belonging to the middle class, some of them enjoying even higher status .6. It is amazing that on page 96 of his book “Muhammad at Mecca”, Montgommery Watt ascribes to the early Muslims a very high status and on page 102 of the same book, holds a tale which puts them unreservedly as “slaves and clients” to be genuine. The charge that the Holy Prophet was contemplating obliging the Quraysh by defying their idols is also wrong. Muir is very keen to foist these thoughts to him. He alleges that the Holy Prophet was extremely eager to gain the support of Quraysh but they were irrevocably wedded to idolatory. On these assumptions he concludes that the Holy Prophet had no choice but to relent and acknowledge the divinity of their idols.7. 4. Life Page 80/82; Muhammed at Mecca p. 102/103; R.R. Buhl, Shorter Edit ion of Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1953, p. 396; H.G. Wells, Outline of History p. 599; Kenneth Cragg, The Call of The Minaret, p. 103, Noted; Richard Bell, The Origin of Islam in its Christian Environment, p. 55/57. 5. Muhammed At Mecca: p. 102. 6. Ibid, p. 96. 7. Life, p. 83/84. 25 THE HOLY PROPHET ON 1DOLATORY This is, however, purely a case of wishful thinking. In his bid to make his charge look plausible, Muir attributes to the Holy Prophet, thoughts and sentiments which never crossed his mind. As regards the Holy Prophet’s state of mind, the Holy Quran expressly affirms that “he does not speak out of his own desires”8, meaning thereby that his ideas and sentiments strictly conformed to the revelations received by him which rejected idolatory altogether. Moreover, according to the Holy Quran, it was the disbelievers who thought in these terms and persistently strove without success to secure some sort of concession from the Holy Prophet. The Holy Quran attributes the act of wishing for a compromise solely to the disbelievers, without the slightest hint that the Holy Prophet reciprocated their sentiments.9 The charge then claims that the Holy Prophet sang praises of idols in the precincts of the Ka’ba. This again is against the pattern of the Holy Prophet’s character. He could not do what he had always been denouncing. The Quraysh had constantly offered him attractive inducements and even threats of vengeance if he did not comply with their wishes to which he never succumbed. Three delegations of Meccan chiefs met his uncle, Abu Talib, and pressed him to dissuade his nephew from condemning idolatory. Abu Talib counselled his nephew but the Holy Prophet firmly refused to yield. Once, when it seemed that Abu Talib, no more able to withstand the pressure, would forsake him, the Holy Prophet firmly stood by his convictions and said: ” If they brought the sun on my right hand and the moon on my left to force me from my undertaking, verily, I will not desist therefrom until the Lord make manifest my cause or I should perish in the attempt”10. The high resolve with which the Holy Prophet adhered to his cause at the crucial hour rules out the possibility of his alleged fall. It must be kept in mind that on that particular occasion, he was facing the most critical moment of his life as he was in a mortal danger of losing the sympathy and protection of his only benefactor. But even then he did not flinch and refused to show even a whit of recognition to idols. How is it then possible, as orientalists allege, that on a certain day, in the course of his routine daily recitation of the Holy Quran in the precinct of the Holy Ka’ba — while the disbelievers, far from being coercive to him in any way were listening spell bound — he, out of his own accord would acknowledge the divinity of their idols. This, on face value, is not only inconceivable but contrary to reason. There is another point noteworthy in this context. Ibne Hisham puts these delegations before the return of the emigrants from Abyssinia and prior to the 8.The Holy Quran 53:3 9. Ibid 68:9 10. Life, p. 87 I REVIEW OF RELIGIONS 26 alleged episode of the satanic verses. But Muir and Montgommery Watt put them after these incidents and in this way contradict their own charge. For, if the episode of the satanic verses was true, there was no need of sending such delegations, as in that case the Quraysh had already gained their objective. Moreover, according to Ibne Sa’d the emigration to Abyssinia took place in the month of Rajab in the 5th year of the Holy Prophet’s Call. Three months had already passed when hoodwinked by the rumoured conversion of the Meccans, the refugees reappeared in the town.” In view of these facts, the episode of the satanic verses must have taken place in one of the three months of Rajab, Sha’baan and Ramdhan. Now according to Noldeke, the chapter al—Kafirun was revealed to the Holy Prophet in the 4th year of his Call. The surah categorically denounces the idea of a compromise with idolatory and emphatically proclaims the Unity of God. How could it then be insigned, that only a few months after this absolute proclamation, the Holy Prophet could utter such blasphemy. There is another striking discrepency in the tradition. It says that when the Holy Prophet knew what satan had caused to come forth from his tongue, it weighed upon him and he was sorely distressed. So God Almighty consoled him by revealing to him the verse 22:52. This suggests that the narrator of this tradition is miserably ignorant of the Quranic chronology. The verse 22:52 was revealed to the Holy Prophet in the 13th year of his Call, some eight years after the alleged revelation of the satanic verses. This anachronism alone is sufficient to discredit the tradition. Muir has rejected this part of the tradition on this very ground. Thus, when a vital part of a tradition is proved a fabrication the whole tradition must be rejected as such.’ – It may further be pointed out that the verse 22:52 has nothing to do with the alleged satanic verses. It embodies a general truth, i.e. whenever a Prophet plans to establish the Unity of God, evil minded persons put all sorts of obstacles in his way and try to frustrate his mission but they fail to do so. God Almighty removes all these obstacles and makes the cause of truth to triumph. Muir comes out with another argument concerning the authenticity of these traditions. Hestatesthat “The authorities are too strong to be dismissed”. Let us see what worth, if any, is possessed by his authorities. The traditions cited by him are reported by Tabari and Wakidi. Tabari, as is evident from his “History of Nations and Kings” is a credulous and indiscriminate writer. As regards Wakidi the following verdict by his contemporary critics will show that he is extremely untrustworthy. More scholars holding the similar views about him could be cited, but the following 11.Life, p. 80. 12.Life, 1912, p. 82. 27 THE HOLY PROPHET ON IDOLATORY three ought to suffice as one of them is a traditionist par-excellence and tr other two are well-known founders of the juristic schools. In view of the verdii of these renowned scholars, it is clear that the traditions cited by Wakidi are nc to be taken for granted but should be subjected to minute scrutiny. 1. Wakidi does not deserve that any tradition be received from him.13 2. Wakidi is an outrageous liar. He is addicted to concocting of traditions. 3. Wakidi’s writings are without any exception a heap of lies’. He used t fabricate authorities.15 Orientalists accept Wakidi as above criticism simply because he suits the purposes better, otherwise they have nothing to refute the scholarly opinioi against him. It should be appreciated that the traditions quoted by Montgommery Wa from al-Tabari are attributed to a certain Abul Aliya, who joined Islam tv years after the demise of the Holy Prophet (peace on him). According to h own confession he took 10 years, after embracing Islam, to learn the Ho Quran.16 When he accepted Islam, some 20 years had elapsed on the alleg< episode of satanic verses. Thus his evidence, based on hearsay, could not 1 reliable. There is another point noteworthy in this context. Some 83 companions the Holy Prophet had emigrated to Abyssinia before this event took plac When it was rumoured that Quraysh had joined Islam some 33 of them car back to Mecca, among them were many illustrious companions like Hazr Uthman b.Affan, Hazrat Abdul Rahman b.Auf, Hazrat Musa'b b. Umaj Hazrat Uthman b. Mazun and Hazrat Zabayr b. al-Awam. They we prominent persons having independent views and they had returned express in consequence of the alleged episode. It was natural for them to get to know there was any truth in it. But they don't give even a hint regarding the satar verses. How then, could Abul Autia, who appeared 20 years after the event accepted a readable narrator. Moreover the six canonical books of traditions, namely Bukhari, Muslii Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nassai and Ibne Maja do not take any notice of t traditions on which Muir and Montgommery Watt have relied, a furth indication of their incredibility. Also, if the story of the satanic verses had been true, its logical consequenc as pointed out by Muir17 would have certainly followed. The believers wou 13. Imam Bukhari. 14. Imam Ahmad Bin Hanble. 15.Imam Shaffi. 16.Tahzib al-Tahzib, Vol. Ill, p. 284. 17.Life, p. 85/86. REVIEW OF RELIGIONS 28 have been seized with grave doubts and most probably renounced their faith in the Holy Prophet. Besides, the Quraysh also would have exploited this point. But we see that nothing like it happened. There were at that time some 50 souls who had joined Islam. Most of them were men of integrity who wielded a great influence. They had joined Islam of their own free will and the concept of the Unity of God constituted one of the main doctrines which distinguished them from the disbelievers. If, as is alleged, the Holy Prophet had compromised on this basic issue, how could they continue to uphold him? The fact is that not even one among them faultered. On the contrary, they increased in fidelity and many of them, like Hazrat Abu Bakr, Hazrat Uthman, Hazrat Ali, Hazrat Sa'ad bin Waqqas, Hazrat Abu Ubaidah bin al-Jarrah, Hazrat Abdullah Masud, Hazrat Musa' bin Umayr, in later years became great leaders of Islam. Similarly, we see that Quraysh utterly failed in stopping further conversion. Muir says that the Meccans argued at the Holy Prophet and held him in scorn. But this was not a new phenomenon. The Quraysh had ridiculed the Holy Prophet from the onset of his ministry. Had the Quraysh been able to stop further conversion by playing upon the alleged compromise, it would have indeed given considerable weight to the story. But, we see that within a few months of this episode, when according to Montgommery Watt, the satanic verses still formed part of the Quran, the illustrious Umar joined Islam. Now would anyone tell us that Hazrat Umar joined Islam to seek intercession of Lat, Uzza and Manat? Can there be anything more unreasonable? It is absurd to think that when the basic article of the faith, the Unity of God hung in balance, men like Umar would yield allegiance to the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of God be on him). Montgommery Watt also alleges that the verses 17:73-75 ascribe to the Holy Prophet, a temptation to compromise with idolatory.18 In fact these verses are traditionally quoted by orientalists in proof of the allegation. The verse 73 speaks of disbelievers as having well-nigh caused the Holy Prophet a Fitnah. LAYAFTAYNOONKA. Fitnah literally means, to burn or cause severe affliction. Metaphorically it means to seduce.''' 18. Muhammed at Mecca, p. 107. 19. Lane, Booki, Part 6, p. 2334. 29 THE HOLY PROPHFT ON IDOLATORY Seduction is not applicable here, as it is a metaphorical and not a literal meaning of the root word. Also, as according to the Holy Quran, true servants of God are invulnerable to the guiles of satan .2a Again, according to Arabic usage, the word KADA and its derivatives invariably negate the operation of the verb which they qualify.21 So the verse WA IN KADU LAYAFTAYNOONAKA would mean that the disbelievers could not afflict thee (the Holy Prophet) in the least, although they strove hard to do so. The remaining portion of the verse sets forth the reason why the disbelievers wanted to persecute the Holy Prophet, i.e., to get their idols recognised as deities instead of being condemned as mere names as was the Holy Prophet's wont to do. The verse is explicit on the point that the disbelievers failed in their mission. This is the purport of the verse and there is not the least allusion of any temptation in the Holy Prophet's mind to compromise with idolatory as alleged by Montgommery Watt. The translation of the verse given below, will bear out the point that it refers only to the discomfort of the disbelievers in causing severe affliction to the Holy Prophet. And they had well-nigh caused thee severest affliction on account of what We have revealed to thee that thou mightest forge against Us something other than that, and then they would have certainly taken thee for a special friend.22 The point that the word Kada, when preceding a verb nullifies its operation is borne out by many verses of the Holy Quran. We give below one instance. The verse 28:10 speaks of the mother of Moses as having well-nigh revealed her identity on receiving her child back for suckling. IN KADAT LATUBDI B I H I , the intention of the verse is that she did not do it and this is corroborated by history. According to Exodus 2:8-10, she suckled Moses as a hired nurse and Pharoah's daughter did not know that she was the mother of her adopted son, Moses. Let us now take the verse 74. Here also Kidta, a derivative of Kada precedes the verb Tarkano and renders it inoperative. The meaning would be "And if We had not strengthened thee (with the Quran even then) thou wouldest have inclined to them but little. Far from alluding to any temptation on the part of the Holy Prophet, it stresses upon the purity of his mind and emphasises that even if the Quran had not been revealed to him, the Holy Prophet would not have been inclined to idolatory. It is amazing how Montgommery Watt stretches it to mean just the opposite. 20. 16:98/100 and 15:42. 21. Lisan al-Arab, Under the Article Ka'Wi. 22. The Holy Quran; 17:73. REVIEW OF RELIGIONS 30 The next verse, 75 contains a hypothetical statement that if as desired by the disbelievers, the Holy Prophet had forged a lie against God and associated partners to Him, he would have been severely punished. As the Mission of the Holy Prophet did not receive any setback as threatened in this verse, it is plain that the intention of the verse is to absolve him of these imputations. So the three verses do not ascribe any temptation to the Holy Prophet in compromising with idolatory as orientalists vainly attempt to allege. Montgommery Watt further alleges that verses 39:64-66 "definitely reveal the Holy Prophet's temptation to associate partners to God.21 We reproduce the verses below. Anybody could determine that they do not contain any such implication but on the contrary intensify the command against idolatory. Say (O Muhammad) (to the disbelievers) Do ye bid me serve other than Allah O ye fools; And verily it hath been revealed unto thee as unto those before thee (saying): if thou ascribe a partner to Allah thy work will fail and thou indeed will be among the losers. Nay but Allah must thou serve, and be among the thankful. The verse 6:136 quoted by Montgommery Watt does not lend any support to his allegations. It alludes to the practice of the idolaters to acknowledge God in name only and in fact to worship their idols alone. The comment, that is the sort of fact which may have shown Muhammad that the compromise would not work', is totally uncalled for.24 When the fact of compromise itself is not established, it is meaningless to enumerate the circumstances which might have led to it. Again, Montgommery Watt cites Surat al-Kafirun, verses 6:56-71 in proof of his charges. The surah al-Kafirun embodies a total and irrevocable denunciation of idolatry and the verses 56 and 71 of surah 6 also condemn it severely. Montgommery Watt comes out with the following remarks on these three passages: "The fact that there are three separate passages (condemning idolatory) suggests that the temptation to compromise was evident to Muhammed for a considerable time."25 These remarks are a production of Montgommery Watt's own obsession. He is a teacher. Let us ask him that if he forbids his associates from gambling or any other crime more heinous — and to emphasize his point he repeats his injunction many a time and on many different occasions — will it mean that all this time his own mind was being haunted with temptation to gamble? Every sane person will say 'No' to it, for, to explain to others the gravity of a sin and to forbid them from it repeatedly 23. Muhammed a! Mecca, p. 107. 24. Ibid, p. 107. 25. Ibid , p. 107. 31 THE HOLY PROPHET ON IDOLATORY does not imply that the teacher himself is tempted to practice it. Why then impute such baseless sentiments to the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of God be on him). This much about the traditions and verses of the Holy Quran on which orientalists impute idolatory to the Holy Prophet. Let us now examine some arguments which they derive from common sense. Montgommery Watt plays upon the concept of gradual development. He states that Muslims are unaware of this idea and argues that due to their ignorance, they are unable to appreciate the fact that the Holy Prophet's conception of monotheism must also have culminated gradually. He must, in the meantime as was the custom in his milieu, recognised Arab deities as such and out of this regard for them praised them in surah al-Najm.26 Firstly, it is wrong to say that the concept of gradual development is not possessed by Islam. It is Islam which formulated it. The basic idea in its complete form is found in the very first verse of the surah al-Fatiha. It says Allah is Rabb al-Alameen, i.e., the Nourisher of the whole universe. Rabb means "the bringing (a thing) to a state of completion by degrees".27 This is without a doubt evolution. (However, we are not talking of Darwinism). Secondly, the fact that the Holy Quran descended upon the Holy Prophet in some 23 years, the period in which Islam was perfected, clearly indicates that it developed gradually. The point that the Holy Prophet was fully conscious of this concept is evident from the instructions which he gave to Muadh bin- Jabbal when he sent him to Yemen for Islamising the Yemenites. He instructed him to proceed gradually in their education and training.28 So far as the person of the Holy Prophet is concerned, he is not above this law. The Quran calls him a mortal, subject to the relevant laws of growth and decay.29 Nobody can deny that his knowledge of the full powers and Majesty of God and of the working of His attributes in this universe develop gradually. After all the Namus or Gabriel appeared to him for the first time when he was 40 and after he had undergone a long course of meditation and devotional prayers in the seclusion of the cave at Hira. The verse "God found thee lost in search of Him and guided thee unto Himself"30 points to the same truth. The following verse of the Holy Quran fully supports our view and clinches the matter. It says: "And thus have We revealed to thee the Word by Our command. Thou didst not know what the book was nor what the faith. But We have made the revelation a light, whereby We guide such of Our servants as we please. And truly thou guidest mankind to the right path. "31 26. Muhammed al Mecca, p. 104. 27. Lane, Arabic-English Lexion, Book 1, part 3, p. 1003. 28. Buichari, Kitab al-Zakat, Chapter 945. 29. The Holy Quran, 17:93. 30. Ibid, 97:3. 31. Ibid, 42:53. REVIEW OF RELIGIONS 32 But there is a world of difference in having full enlightenment about God and in realising that He is only One without any partner. The Holy Prophet had a clear conception of this aspect of monotheism from the very beginning. Expressly questioned on this issue, he is reported to have affirmed that even in his childhood he had never bowed before any idol, nor eaten of any food offered in their name.3 2 There is nothing repugnant to the concept of gradual development. After all, every child does not start from the one and the same level. Some children are endowed with exceptional potentialities. So it is not inconceivable that the Holy Prophet remained a Unitarian throughout his childhood because of his polytheistic environment. When he was 40 he was raised as a Prophet indicating that he had attained greater spiritual maturity. At this stage, the contingency of polythiestic inclinations is ruled out, for from that time onward, he was being under greater care and tutelage of the Supreme Being, and constantly in communion with Him. So to allege that in the 4th year of his Call, when he was 44 years old satan was able to prevail upon him is to allege something grossly self-contradictory. Muir has another argument to offer. He says, it is hardly possible to conceive 'the story if not in some shape or another founded on truth could ever have been invented.33 Jews with one voice charged Mary with giving birth to an illegitimate child34 yet nobody alleges that their charge was 'in some shape or other founded on truth.' Muir's argument is absolutely baseless. The truth is that there are, in this world, many stories afloat which have no foundation, this story is one of them. Montgommery Watt also comes out with the same argument. He says, "it is unthinkable that the story could have been invented later by Muslims or foisted upon them by non-Muslims."3 3 There is no question of any early or later Muslims inventing the story. It was tendentiously shaped by the Quraysh to get the emigrants back at Mecca. Three months prior to the incident of the alleged satanic verses, they had chased the believers to the coast but failed to catch them as they had already embarked for Abyssinia. They had then sent their two prominent chiefs, Abdullah bin Ribiyya and Amr bin As bin Wali to Negus for getting the emigrants extradited. The delegation gave him and his generals many valuable presents and though the latter backed the request strongly, Negus firmly refused to give up the refugees.36 Infuriated at this, the Quraysh went in search of another opportunity. They 32. Halbiyyah, Vol. I, Chapter What God Almighty Guarded. 33. Life, p. 882. 34. The Holy Quran; Surah Maryam 27-28. 35. Muhammed at Mecca, p. 103. 36. A. Guillaum's Translation of Ibne Ishaq's, Seerat Rasul Allah, p. 150-151. 33 THE H01.Y PROPHET ON IDOl.ATORY got it on the occasion, when at the recitation of sura al-Najm, awed by the majesty of God, the believers and Quraysh alike prostrated. Muir suggests that the disbelievers prostrated because the Holy Prophet had acknowledged their deities.37 But this is not correct. They had done so, as in spite of associating idols with God, they believed in His supremacy,38 and after listening to surah al- Najm, prostration became spontaneous for them for it had proclaimed His Majesty in a most compelling and awe-inspiring term. The Quraysh exploited this incident with great dexterity and spread the story that they had joined Islam, gaining by it, the end. They desired the believers return to Mecca. Now, no orientalist would say that the story of Quraysh joining Islam at that time had even a grain of truth in it. This fact alone is sufficient to belie the argument advanced by Muir and Montgommery, the inventions without some core of truth inconceivable. When the Quraysh spread this rumour, it is also plausible that they added to it the story of the satanic verses to make the whole thing appear more convincing. Someone from among them might have uttered the satanic verses when the Holy Prophet was condemning their idols while reciting surah al-Najm. They were used to make a noise during Quranic recitals;39 and were also very familiar with the alleged satanic verses which they used to recite while making circuit of ka'ba.40 So the whole story was an ingenious invention of the Quraysh which they cleverly foisted upon the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of God be on him). In the end, we would like to draw the attention of the reader to a very vital aspect of this issue. The internal evidence afforded by the chapter al-Najm and particularly of the verses preceding the alleged satanic verses is enough to show that the whole story is purely a concoction. The surah sings praises of the Unity and Majesty of God and dwells upon the point that the realisation of God attained by the Holy Prophet is such as is not within the reach of any other mortal. In this context the names of idols, al-Lat, Uzza and Manat are mentioned. True to the compulsions of the context, these idols are derided as impotent and insignificant, nothing more than mere names vis-a-vis God Almighty. Thus the alleged satanic verses could in no way fit in this setting. It is psychologically impossible. Should orientalists ponder on this aspect, the truth would readily dawn upon them. 37. Life. p. 80/82. 38. The Holy Quran, 39:3 and 29:61. 39. The Holy Quran, 41:26. 40. Majni al-Buldan, Chapter V, under the ar t ic le "Uz/a'


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