Was Ertuğrul Ghazi a Real Person? Uncovering the Truth Behind the Netflix Series ‘Diriliş: Ertuğrul’


Zafir Malik, UK

Spoiler Alert! This article is based on historical facts that may be different to what has been depicted in the series ‘Diriliş: Ertuğrul’

As a Muslim growing up in the West, it is really painful to see my beautiful religion hijacked by so-called ‘Muslims’ committing acts of terror and evil in the name of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sa), who had come as a Mercy for all of Mankind. Although the portrayal of Muslims by the media does not help Muslims or Islam, the fact of the matter is the actions of a minority of people calling themselves Muslims do not help either. And so it makes a change to see Muslims represented in a positive light for once – being the protagonists as opposed to the antagonists.

Dubbed as the ‘Muslim Game of Thrones’, the hugely popular Turkish television series, ‘Diriliş: Ertuğrul‘, has amassed a global fan base since its release in 2014. This epic series is based on Ertuğrul, a 13th century Turkic leader of a nomadic tribe called the ‘Kayis’, who lived in western Anatolia.[1]

In the series, the character of Ertuğrul is shown as a beacon of hope for the oppressed, who champions the rights of the weak and poor, irrespective of the religion they follow. His integrity, bravery and honesty in his dealings are all attributes of what a Muslim should be. In a Hadith [saying of the Holy Prophet (sa)], Prophet Muhammad (sa) is reported to have said:

‘Whosoever of you sees an evil action, let him change it with his hand; and if he is not able to do so, then with his tongue; and if he is not able to do so, then he should (abhor it) in his heart—and that is the weakest of faith.’[2]

Throughout the series, Ertuğrul and his followers are shown to take the Qur’an as a standard to live by and the stories of the past prophets are recounted to draw inspiration from. Incidents from the life of Prophet Muhammad (sa) are narrated before young and old alike. One recurring theme throughout the show is that despite losing loved ones, facing the most difficult trials, a Muslim should never lose hope in God, drawing on the verse:

لَا تَقۡنَطُوْا مِن رَّحۡمَةِ ٱللهِۚ

Despair not of the mercy of Allah’ (39:54)

Why is so Little Known About Ertuğrul’s Life?

Spanning a staggering 5 seasons and 448 episodes – according to the Netflix series – it may seem strange that so little is known about the real life of Ertuğrul, especially since his son, Osman, was the founding father of the Ottoman Empire.[3] Much of that is to do with the fact that nomad tribes would not usually write down their history and instead it was passed down through oral tradition. Whatever was written would either be destroyed in conflict or damaged, as there were hardly any means of preservation.[4] Furthermore, at that point in history, Ertuğrul was merely a leader of a small tribe in western Anatolia. However, this should in no way take anything away from the role Ertuğrul played in laying the foundations of the Ottoman Empire.

He lived in a time where Muslim Turkic tribes were not only disunited, but also fought with one another. There was a power struggle in the region between the Seljuks, Ayyubis and the Khwarezm Shah dynasty. To make matters worse for him, Ertuğrul’s tribe were sandwiched between two major powers, the Byzantines to the West and the Mongols conquering vast territories coming in from the East.[5] This was on top of the constant attacks from the Crusader armies as well as the Templars – a Christian military order of knighthood.[6]

Map showing the Byzantine and Seljuk empires; 1000-1200 CE
©Fanack 2013

Who were the Oghuz Turks?

Turkic nomad tribes such as the Kayis were a branch of the Oghuz Turkic people. They originally lived in the Eurasian Steppe[7], before migrating west around the eighth century. The tribes that moved into eastern Europe, the Middle East and western Central Asia are referred to as the Oghuz people, or Turkomans.[8] The Oghuz Turks were a confederacy comprising of some 20 tribes and subtribes, the Kayi being one of these branches.[9] The Kayi tribe itself was comprised of several subtribes and Ertuğrul is said to belong to the Karakeçili tribe.[10]

Ertuğrul, son of Gunduz Alp, not Suleyman Shah

Although the exact date of birth of Ertuğrul is unknown, historical sources state that he was born towards the end of the 12th century with the dates of 1191 and 1198 cited.[11] Fans of the show Diriliş: Ertuğrul will know Ertuğrul as the son of Suleyman Shah. Ertuğrul boldly announces this whilst making a dramatic entrance in a number of scenes. However, according to modern historians, his father’s name was actually Gunduz Alp, not Suleyman Shah. Proof of this has come to light recently when two coins surfaced, minted during the time of Osman I, which bear the inscription: ‘Osman bin Ertuğrul bin Gunduz Alp’, which means ‘Osman, son of Ertuğrul, son of Gunduz Alp’.[12]

The main side of the coin bears the words: ‘Osman bin Ertuğrul bin Gunduz Alp’

The rest of Ertuğrul’s family seems to be like what has been depicted in the series. His mother is said to be Hayme Hatun; she had three other sons: Sungur Tegin, Gundogdu and Dundar. Although according to some sources Ertuğrul’s wife is said to be Halime Hatun or Halime Sultan, evidence is scarce with regards to authenticity of her name and background.[13] Some historians such as Professor Heath W. Lowry even claim that the mother of Ertuğrul’s children is unknown.[14] As for Ertuğrul’s children, it is said that he had three sons, Gunduz, Savci and Osman.[15]

Ertuğrul Becomes Leader of the Kayi tribe

In the 13th century, Gunduz Alp, the father of Ertuğrul, left Mahan in Iran and moved to Eastern Anatolia, settling in the province of Bitlis, near the historic town of Ahlat.[16] He fled from a Mongol invasion along with thousands of Turkomans. From here on there are two varying opinions as to what happened next; one opinion is that Ertuğrul’s father drowned crossing the Euphrates river, at which point the family split up; two sons returned to Mongol occupied territory and entered into their service, whereas Ertuğrul continued migrating west into Anatolia.[17]

Another view is that after moving to Ahlat, the Kayi tribe migrated again to Erzurum. Soon after, Ertuğrul’s father passed away and Ertuğrul became leader of the Kayi tribe. At this point two of Ertuğrul’s brothers, Sungur Tegin and Gundogdu returned to their original settlement in eastern Anatolia. However, Ertuğrul and his younger brother Dundar migrated west to the Sivas territory of Anatolia with approximately 100 families and 400 Alps (soldiers).[18]

Ertuğrul’s Growing Reputation and the Battle of Yassicemen

In 1230, a battle took place between the Seljuk Sultan, Alaeddin Keykubad and Jalal Al-Din, the leader of the Khwarezm Shah dynasty.[19] This battle was known as the Battle of Yassicemen. Ertuğrul and his Alps fought on the side of the Seljuks and defeated the opposition, ending the Khwarezm Shah dynasty. As a gesture of his appreciation for his support, Sultan Alaeddin gave Ertuğrul the Karacadag territory, near Ankara.[20] In the following year, Ertuğrul captured the famous Karacahisar Castle[21] – as shown in season 4 of ‘Diriliş: Ertuğrul’. Subsequently, the Sultan granted Ertuğrul two small districts; Sogut and Domanic (present-day northwest Turkey), as well as the area of Bithynia, which was the eastern Byzantine border area.[22] Ertuğrul effectively secured the western border of the Seljuk Sultanate against not only the Byzantine forces, but also from the attacks by the Crusaders and Mongols. Owing to this, Sultan Alaeddin appointed him as the “Uç Bey” (pronounced Ooch Bey), which means the governor of a frontier province.[23] As explained earlier, it is difficult to know for sure exactly which battles were fought by Ertuğrul or other facts about his adult life. From this point on in history, Ertuğrul secured his territory and fought off attacks with his military genius.

Ertuğrul passed away in his 90’s, around 1280. All these territories that were under Ertuğrul’s rule were passed on to the next leader of the Kayi tribe, Osman.[24] This proved to be the basis for the future Ottoman Empire. Ertuğrul is buried in Sogut, present day Turkey.

Tomb Of Ertugrul Gazi In Söğüt, Turkey. Father Of The Ottoman Empire; Shutterstock ID 1311064877; issue: -; story: -; other: -; client: –

The tomb of Ertuğrul Ghazi located in Söğüt, Turkey

Characters of ‘Diriliş: Ertuğrul’ – Are they real?

Alongside Ertuğrul, there are a number of other graves situated in Sogut with names of the famous characters from the series. Although it is difficult to verify their authenticity and comment on every character, I will mention what I have come across regarding the prominent members of the series as found in historical sources:

Note: Fans of the show may be surprised by what they read!

Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi (rh) – (1165-1240)

Ibn Arabi was a renowned Muslim saint, philosopher, poet and scholar. He was born in Murcia, in Muslim occupied Spain. He authored a number of books on various Islamic topics, expanding especially upon Sufism. Throughout his life, Ibn Arabi (rh) travelled to various places including Makkah, Baghdad, Cairo, Mosul etc.

In ‘Diriliş: Ertuğrul‘, Ibn Arabi has been portrayed as a key character in Ertuğrul’s life. In the series, Ibn Arabi’s vast knowledge and wisdom comforts all those he meets. It has been shown that Ertuğrul is saved from villains on a number of occasions through the prayers of Ibn Arabi. Undoubtedly, God Almighty accepting prayers is a key belief of the Islamic faith; and sure enough, Ibn Arabi was a contemporary of Ertuğrul; Ibn Arabi even visited Anatolia on a number of occasions, however, there is no evidence to suggest the two actually met, or interacted in the way that has been portrayed in the series.

In 1205, Ibn Arabi visited Malatya and Konya in Anatolia. After staying for almost two years, he left for Cairo. He returned to Anatolia in 1210 and visited the cities of Kayseri, Malatya, Sivas and Harran. He passed away in Damascus in 1240.[25]

Sultan Alaeddin Keykubad I – (1188 or 1190 – 1237)

Sultan Alaeddin I was the Seljuk Sultan from 1220 – 1237. After the death of his father, Kaykhusraw I, Alaeddin and his brother Izzeddin Keykaus fought over the succession of the throne. With help from the Armenian king and his uncle, Tugrulshah – governor of Erzurum – Alaeddin besieged his brother in Kayseri. However, he was unsuccessful in his siege and he retreated to Ankara castle on the condition that he would not be harmed. However, when his supplies ran out in Ankara, he was captured and imprisoned by Izzeddin. Although Izzedin wanted to execute his brother for this revolt, he was stopped from doing so by his mentor, Majduddin Ishak, and instead he remained in prison.[26] When Izzeddin died in 1220, since he did not have any male heirs, the throne passed to Alaeddin.[27]

Sultan Alaeddin Keykubad I’s reign saw a brief period of Seljuk prosperity. He sought to rectify the broken relations with the Ayyubis by marrying Malika Adiliyya Khatun in 1227, the daughter of Ayyubi Sultan Adil I. Alaeddin’s first wife, Mahperi Khatun, was of Armenian or Greek descent. She was the mother of his eldest son, Giyaseddin Keyhusrev II. Sultan Alaeddin’s third marriage was to his cousin, daughter of Tughrulshah, the governor of Erzurum.[28]

During his reign, Sultan Alaeddin increased trade relations and gave importance to science and education. He strengthened the crumbling State militarily as well. Intellectuals were welcome at his court; esteemed scholars such as Muyiddin Ibn Arabi (rh) and Jalaluddin Rumi (rh) often visited him.[29]

Contrary to what was depicted in ‘Diriliş: Ertuğrul’, Sultan Alaeddin was not killed by the infamous Sa’d Al-Din Köpek. In 1237, after enjoying a lavish banquet, Sultan Alaeddin died of poisoning.[30] His death was sudden but the details of who poisoned him are unknown. Rumours at the time were that he was poised by his son, Giyaseddin Keyhusrev II,[31] who then ascended the throne, despite his father’s wish for his younger brother, Izz al-Din Qilij Arslan III – son of the Ayyubi princess Malika Adiliyya – to be the next king.[32]

Sa’d Al-Din Köpek – (died 1238)

From season 2 to season 4, Sa’d Al-Din Köpek, a Seljuk Amir, is shown as Ertuğrul’s main nemesis, wreaking havoc with his schemes and treachery. Interestingly enough, it seems that treachery and cunning were his main traits in real life also, so much so that a research scholar, Sara Nur Yildiz, has written an entire chapter about him titled: The rise and fall of a tyrant in Seljuq Anatolia: Sa’d al-Din Köpek’s reign of terror, 1237-8.

Not much is known about Sa’d Al-Din’s early life. However, during the reign of Sultan Alaeddin Keykubad, Sa’d Al-Din was an Amir and prominent vizier in the royal court. As mentioned above, there is no evidence to suggest that he was involved in the poisoning of Sultan Alaeddin. However, Sultan Alaeddin’s sudden demise gave Sa’d Al-Din the opportunity to make his move.

When Giyaseddin Keyhusrev II ascended the throne after his father’s death, he was no more than 15 or 16. Sa’d Al-Din was quick to gain influence over him thus beginning his reign of terror. Sa’d Al-Din launched a series of killings, purging any influential Vizier or Commander that he deemed a threat. The first assault was against the chief of the Khwarezmshah, who commanded a powerful unit of the Seljuk army and also other Khwarezmian leaders. Following this, Sa’d Al-Din tightened his grip over the Sultan and blocked off any other vizier or official visiting him. His killing spree did not stop there: he ordered the killing of Sultan Alaeddin’s Ayyubi wife, Malika Adiliyya Khatun, and also her two sons, Izz al-Din Qilij Arslan III and Rukn Al-Din III.

No vizier was safe from Sa’d Al-Din’s terror and he was virtually unstoppable. His next move would be to declare himself the Sultan and finish off the young Giyaseddin Keyhusrev II. To begin with, Sa’d Al-Din began spreading rumours that he was the son of Giyaseddin Kaykhusraw I (Alaeddin Keykubad I’s father), after he had a secret relationship with a woman from Konya. This would make Sa’d Al-Din the half-brother of Sultan Alaeddin Keykubad I and uncle of the young Giyaseddin Keyhusrev II.

It was only when Köpek imprisoned and executed Kamal Al-Din Kamyar – one of the most senior and trusted viziers – that the young Sultan realised that Sa’d Al-Din had now firmly set his eyes on the throne, and that he was surely the next target. Giyaseddin sent one of his servants to Husam Al-Din Qaraja, the commander of Sivas (a city in Turkey), and asked for help to get rid of the menacing Sa’d Al-Din. Fans of the show may well be disappointed to know that Ertuğrul had nothing to do with the downfall of Sa’d Al-Din. Instead it was Husam Al-Din who finished him off on order of the Sultan. He initially gained Sa’d Al-Din’s confidence by using flattery and presenting him expensive gifts. Then one night, after a drinking session, Husam Al-Din and a household servant killed Sa’d Al-Din. His body was then taken back to Konya and put on display.[33]

Ertuğrul’s Loyal Alps – Turgut Alp, Samsa Cavus, Abdurrahman Ghazi

From all of Ertuğrul’s Alps, there are some noteworthy warriors who fought not only alongside him, but his son Osman I and his grandson, Orhan:

Turgut Alp 

Although information about his life is scarce, nonetheless, he is mentioned in early Ottoman sources as well as Byzantine sources. Turgut fought alongside Ertuğrul; after Ertuğrul passed away, Turgut served as a military commander under Ertuğrul’s son, Sultan Osman I, and was influential in the conquest of Inegol.[34] After Osman I died, Turgut then served under Osman’s son, Sultan Orhan, reportedly living to an age of 120 years.[35] During the reign of Sultan Orhan, Turgut was part of the army that captured Atranos (present day Orhaneli). This victory paved the way for the conquest of Bursa, in which Turgut was also present.[36]

Samsa Cavus

No details are found about Samsa’s life, but according to prof. Dr. Ahmet Şimşirgil, when Ertuğrul arrived in Sogut and began raids against the Byzantines, Samsa Cavus joined Ertuğrul’s cause.[37]

Abdurrahman Ghazi

Along with Turgut and Samsa, Abdurrahman Ghazi was another loyal warrior of Ertuğrul[38], who went on to duly serve under Osman I and his son, Sultan Orhan. During the reign of Osman I, Abdurrahman besieged and conquered a number of Byzantine Castles. He was instrumental in capturing the fortified Kara Tekin fortress, which facilitated the conquest of Iznik.[39]

In 1327 or 1328, Sultan Orhan ordered Abdurrahman to conquer the Byzantine occupied Aydos castle. The famous Ottoman historian, Aşık Paşazade, mentions an interesting account of how this castle was captured. He states that the daughter of the castle commander saw a dream in which a man saved her when she fell into a pit. She thus fell in love with her saviour, not knowing who he was. When Abdurrahman lay siege of the castle, she immediately recognised him as the man who had saved her in the dream. She sent a secret note to Abdurrahman stating that he should return at night and that she would give them access to the castle. The army of Abdurrahman acted as though they were retreating and lifted the siege. However, Abdurrahman along with 80 soldiers returned at night and were granted access to the castle by the commander’s daughter, as a result of which the army managed to capture the castle. Abdurrahman then married the castle commander’s daughter and had a son from this marriage named Kara Rahman.[40]

Artuk Bey (died 1091)

Between season 2 and season 5, Artuk Bey is key character in ‘Diriliş: Ertuğrul’. He is shown as an expert physician of the Dodurga tribe. The real name of Artuk Bey was Zahiruddin Artuk Bey, or Zahir-ul-Daulah, and he was an 11th century Seljuk commander. He belonged to the Doger tribe of the Oghuz people and the famous Artuqid Dynasty was formed by the descendants of Artuk Bey.[41] Not much is known about his early life, however, Artuk Bey was a commander in the army of Sultan Alp Arslan – the second Seljuk Sultan. Artuk Bey fought alongside him in the Battle of Manzikert (1071), a famous battle between the Byzantine’s and the Seljuk’s.

In 1076, he was ordered to quash an uprising by the Qarmatians – a sect of Ismaili Shiism who established a state under their founder Abu Tahir Al-Janabi.[42] With a cavalry unit of 7000 strong, he completely subdued them by 1079. In 1083, Sultan Melikshah I ordered Artuk Bey to conquer the region of Diyarbakir in south-eastern Anatolia. However, he fell out with the commander-in-chief of the operation, Fakhr Al-Daulah, and pulled back his forces. He then offered his services to Tutush I, who was the Amir of Damascus and the brother of Sultan Melikshah I. Valuing Artuk’s experience, Tutush appointed him as the governor of Jerusalem and its surrounding regions, where he remained until his death in 1091.[43]

This would mean that Artuk Bey never met Ertuğrul, who was born almost 100 years after his demise. Instead, it seems that he was included in the series to keep his memory alive, as is the case with a few other characters.

Bamsi Beyrek – A Character from Turkish Folklore

A fan’s favourite character, fun and jolly, the double-sword-wielding warrior is not only present in all five seasons of ‘Diriliş: Ertuğrul‘, he is even cast in the sequel ‘Kuruluş: Osman‘. As much as he is a loved character, there is no evidence to suggest that he was a real person. Unlike the other characters mentioned above, Bamsi is actually a legendry character from Turkish folklore.

In ‘Dede Korkut’ – an epic consisting of 12 folklore tales of the Oghuz people – Bamsi Beyrek is the son of a prince, Kam Bure. In this tale, he is engaged to his beloved, Banu Chichek, daughter of Bay Bichen. Fans of the show will know that in the series, Ertuğrul’s alp, Dogan, is shown to marry Banu Chichek. Continuing on with the tale, on the night of their wedding, Bamsi is taken captive along with 40 of his warriors by non-Muslims. He remains captive inside a castle for 16 years, and nobody knows of his whereabouts. Giving up hope of ever finding him, his fiancé Banu Chicek decides to marry another person. Bamsi learns of this marriage through some merchants who came to the castle to search for him. As luck would have it, he manages to escape with help from the governor’s daughter, who is in love with him. Bamsi manages to stop the wedding at the eleventh hour and goes on to capture the castle and release his comrades. He also marries the governor’s daughter because she had made him promise that he would come back and marry her if she helped him escape the castle.[44]

Anyone who has watched the series or studied any Islamic history would know that it has been hypocrites pretending to be Muslims that have caused more damage to Islam than anyone else. In the time of Hazrat Uthman (ra), the third caliph of Islam, it wasn’t the Byzantines or the Persians who attacked him; in fact he was murdered by ‘Muslims’– headed by Abdullah bin Saba – who besieged the house of their Caliph and killed him[45]. This grave incident was so detrimental that it paved the way for the discord that followed within Islam. As mentioned above, when Sa’d Al-Din began purging top Seljuk Commanders and statesmen, this made it that much easier for the Mongols to overrun the Seljuks.

From the time of the Holy Prophet (sa) and the four Rightly Guided Caliphs, Islam had been in spiritual decline – which had been prophesied by the Holy Prophet (sa) himself. It was perhaps owing to these issues that a scene from the series is of particular importance. In season 1, episode 50, Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi is shown sitting with a group of dervishes against a serene backdrop, discussing the dire state of Islam and the Muslims. It is during this conversation that one of the dervishes says: “Everything will be alright when the Mahdi comes.” This statement is of vital importance. The majority of the Muslims are waiting for the Imam Mahdi to appear and to bring about the revival of Islam. However, most Muslims also hold the belief that the Mahdi will appear and spread Islam by force and kill anyone who does not obey him; as if to imply that he would almost be like an ‘Ertuğrul-type figure’, who would travel the entire world, converting people to Islam by his sword.

As this is a very lengthy debate between theologians, I will avoid going into great detail because this is not the focus of the article. The interesting thing to note is that despite numerous reports in books of Hadith [sayings of the Holy Prophet (sa)] on the Imam Mahdi, the two most authentic books, namely Sahih Al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, do not as much as hint about the Imam Mahdi. Could it be that two of the greatest collators of Hadith, Imam Bukhari (rh) and Imam Muslim (rh), did not know about the narrations regarding the Imam Mahdi? This is unlikely to be the case. Instead, the more likely reason would be that the reports about the Imam Mahdi are so contradictory that they chose to leave them out. Instead, both collators refer to a Promised Messiah of the Latter Days, named ‘Jesus, son of Mary’. A Hadith of Ibn Majah can easily solve this predicament. In a narration reported by Anas bin Malik (ra), the Holy Prophet (sa) said: ‘There is no Mahdi, except Jesus, son of Mary.’[46] This tradition explains that the Messiah of the latter days would also be the Mahdi, which perhaps explains why both respected Imams only chose to include traditions about the Messiah of the Latter Days, as opposed to the Imam Mahdi.

This solves one aspect, that the Mahdi and the Messiah of the latter days will be one person; but what about the Hadiths that state he will kill all non-believers? If these reports were accepted literally, then this would not only go against the teachings of the Holy Quran, but also the practice of the Holy Prophet (sa). The Holy Quran clearly states that there is no compulsion when it comes to matters relating to faith.[47] Furthermore, throughout the life of the Holy Prophet (sa) we don’t find a single incident where he compelled people to accept Islam, so why then would the Promised Messiah & Mahdi do such a thing?

Lastly, if indeed the Mahdi will go around the world spilling blood, then it means that he must bring with him something more deadly than a nuclear bomb, because with the advancements in technology, it is hardly feasible for him to travel the world killing people with a sword, when even a small handgun would be more than enough to counter such an attack.

According to Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) – who claimed to be the Promised Messiah of the Latter Days and is the founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community – these prophecies are metaphors – as is often the case with prophecies – meaning that the Promised Messiah & Mahdi will defeat the non-Muslims with his arguments and reasoning. This is supported by a famous Hadith wherein the Holy Prophet (sa) said that the Promised Messiah (as) would bring about an end to warfare.[48] Combined with the Hadith in which the Holy Prophet instructs believers to convey his greetings of peace to Promised Messiah[49], it all points to the fact that the revolution that would be brought about by the Promised Messiah would be a spiritual revival by peaceful means, as indicated by the Holy Prophet (sa) himself.

In summary, it is clear from the facts presented above just what percentage of the Netflix show is based on real history. But nothing is more accurate than the statement in Season 1, Episode 50, ‘Everything will be alright when the Mahdi comes.’ The spiritual revolution brought by Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) – the Promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi – has reached over 200 countries of the world.

Therefore, with regards to historical accounts, one should always be careful and not take everything one sees to be a reality. The same is true for religion: one should investigate the signs of the Messiah and not rely on how others inform the world about them.

About the AuthorZafir Malik serves as the Associate Editor of The Review of Religions, having graduated from Jamia Ahmadiyya UK – Institute of Modern Languages and Theology. He is also an Imam of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and regularly appears as a panellist on MTA International and Voice of Islam radio station answering questions on Islam. 


[1] Also known as Asia Minor, Anatolia spanned across most of present-day Turkey.

[2] Sahih Muslim, Kitab Al-Iman, Hadith No. 49

[3] Douglas A. Howard, A History of the Ottoman Empire, (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2021) 9

[4] Flamur Vehapi, Ertugrul Ghazi: A Very Short Biography, (USA: Crescent Books, 2021) 13

[5] Ibid, 6

[6] https://www.britannica.com/topic/Templars

[7] This is a belt of grassland that spans approximately 5000 miles from Hungary in the west, across Ukraine, Siberia and Central Asia, all the way east to Manchuria.

[8] Stanford J. Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Volume 1, Empire of the Ghazis (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1988) 2

[9] Flamur Vehapi, Ertugrul Ghazi: A Very Short Biography, (USA: Crescent Books, 2021) 10 (Footnote)

[10] Ibid, 14

[11] Ibid, 5

[12] Douglas A.Howard, A History of the Ottoman Empire, (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2021) 9

Flamur Vehapi, Ertugrul Ghazi: A Very Short Biography, (USA: Crescent Books, 2021) 16

[13] Flamur Vehapi, Ertugrul Ghazi: A Very Short Biography, (USA: Crescent Books, 2021) 15

[14] Heath W. Lowry, The Nature of the Early Ottoman State, (New York, USA: State University of New York Press, 2003) 153

[15] Flamur Vehapi, Ertugrul Ghazi: A Very Short Biography, (USA: Crescent Books, 2021) 15

[16] Stanford J. Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Volume 1, Empire of the Ghazis (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1988) 13

Flamur Vehapi, Ertugrul Ghazi: A Very Short Biography, (USA: Crescent Books, 2021) 17

[17] Stanford J. Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Volume 1, Empire of the Ghazis (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1988) 13

[18] Flamur Vehapi, Ertugrul Ghazi: A Very Short Biography, (USA: Crescent Books, 2021) 17-18

[19] https://journals.ju.edu.jo/JJHA/article/view/106220/11829

[20] Flamur Vehapi, Ertugrul Ghazi: A Very Short Biography, (USA: Crescent Books, 2021) 18

[21] Ibid, 34

[22] Stanford J. Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Volume 1, Empire of the Ghazis (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1988) 13

[23] Flamur Vehapi, Ertugrul Ghazi: A Very Short Biography, (USA: Crescent Books, 2021) 19-20

[24] Stanford J. Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Volume 1, Empire of the Ghazis (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1988) 13

[25] https://ibnarabisociety.org/influence-of-ibn-arabi-on-the-ottoman-era-mustafa-tahrali/

[26] Faruk Sumer, “Keykubad I”, TDV Encyclopedia of Islam, https://islamansiklopedisi.org.tr/keykubad-i

[27] https://www.allaboutturkey.com/alaeddin-keykubad.html

[28] Suzan Yalman, “The ‘Dual Identity’ of Mahperi Khatun: Piety, Patronage and Marriage across

Frontiers in Seljuk Anatolia”, Patricia Blessing & Rachel Goshgarin (eds), Architecture and Landscape in Medieval Anatolia, 1100-1500, (U.K.: Edinburgh University Press, 2017) 231-233

[29] https://www.allaboutturkey.com/alaeddin-keykubad.html

[30] Sara Nur Yildiz, “The rise and fall of a tyrant in Seljuq Anatolia: Sa’d al-Din Kopek’s reign of terror, 1237-8”, Robert Hillenbrand, A.C.S. Peacock and Firuza Abdullaeva (eds), Ferdowsi, the Mongols and the History of Iran, (London, UK: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd, 2013) 94

[31] https://www.allaboutturkey.com/alaeddin-keykubad.html

[32] Sara Nur Yildiz, “The rise and fall of a tyrant in Seljuq Anatolia: Sa’d al-Din Kopek’s reign of terror, 1237-8”, Robert Hillenbrand, A.C.S. Peacock and Firuza Abdullaeva (eds), Ferdowsi, the Mongols and the History of Iran, (London, UK: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd, 2013) 94

[33] Ibid, 94-99

[34] Baki Tezcan, The Second Ottoman Empire: Political and Social Transformation in the Early Modern World, (USA: Cambridge University Press, 2010) 86

[35] Flamur Vehapi, Ertugrul Ghazi: A Very Short Biography, (USA: Crescent Books, 2021) 6 (footnote)

[36] Faruk Sumer, “Turgut Alp”, TDV Encyclopedia of Islam, https://islamansiklopedisi.org.tr/turgut-alp

[37] https://ahmetsimsirgil.com/islam-dunyasinin-yeni-lideri-ertugrul-gazi/

Flamur Vehapi, Ertugrul Ghazi: A Very Short Biography, (USA: Crescent Books, 2021) 20 (footnote)

Dr Cengiz Zengin, Ertuğrul Ghazi Kuruluş, (Istanbul, Turkey: Bilgeoguz Publications, 2015) 172

[38] Dr Cengiz Zengin, Ertuğrul Ghazi Kuruluş, (Istanbul, Turkey: Bilgeoguz Publications, 2015) 172

[39] Ibid, 229

[40] Ibid, 183, 229,


[41] Clifford Edmund Bosworth, The Mediaeval Islamic Underworld: The Banu Sasan in Arabic Society and Literature, (Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1976) 134-135

[42] https://rorenglish.wpengine.com/23842/hajj-saudi-conquest-hijaz-1925/

[43] Ali Sevim, “Artuk bin Eksuk”, TDV Encyclopedia of Islam, https://islamansiklopedisi.org.tr/artuk-b-eksuk

[44] The Book of Dede Korkut: A Turkish Epic, (Austin, USA: University of Texas, 1991) 40-69

[45] Hazrat Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmad, The Outset of Dissension in Islam, (Tilford, UK: Islam International Publications Ltd, 2013) 30, 141-143

[46] Sunan Ibn Majah, Kitab al-Fitan, Bab Shiddat Al-Zaman, Hadith No. 4039

[47] The Holy Qur’an, 2:257

[48] Sahih Al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Anbiya, Bab Nuzul Isa bin Maryam, Hadith No. 3448

[49] Al Mustadrak Ala Al-Sahihayn, Kitab al-Fitan wa al-Malahim, Dhikr Nafkh al-Sur wa Inbat al-Ajsad


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  • We all follow the path that has been laid out for Man by our Creator. It is now left to us whether we choose to make positive or negative actions.

    Creation will definitely achieve its set goal; set by the Creator Himself.

  • The holy prophet of Islam_ Muhammad(s.a) is considered a living prophet because this is true physically and spiritually. This is because for any form of creation to navigate successfully the universe; one must follow the tenets brought by him.

  • The universe is like a spider ️️ web; the Spider that wove the web is Muhammad(s.a) and the Creator of the spider is ALLAH the Almighty.

    Ertugrul had its days because it followed the web and when its descendants deviated from the web; the Ottoman empire came crashing down.

  • The Saudis of Najd had their time on the web because they advocated purging Islam of actions such as;

    Veneration of saints and the visitation of their tombs and shrines. Which Islamically impinged on the concept of “Tawhid(God’s oneness).

    However, it would be wise of the Saudis to accept the promised Imam, the hakam and adl prophesied by Muhammad(s.a); so as to stay on the web and not come crashing down like the ottoman empire.

  • Sir Mark Sykes, Francois George-Picot, Arthur James Balfour and Walter Baron Rothschild; all had their time because it was in line with the prophecy in the holy book of Islam brought by Muhammad(s.a) in; Chp17 vs 105;

    اسۡکُنُوا الۡاَرۡضَ فَاِذَا جَآءَ وَعۡدُ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ جِئۡنَا بِکُمۡ لَفِیۡفًا ﴿۱۰۵﴾ؕ

    And after him We said to the Children of Israel, [c]‘Dwell ye in the promised land; and when the time of the promise of the Latter Days comes,[1658] We shall bring you together out of various peoples.’