The life and achievements of Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra)

First address as Khalifatul Masih

At the time of the election of Hadhrat Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad(ra) as Khalifa a small group dissented from his appointment and the very institution of Khilafat. This group broke off to set up a Jama’at in Lahore (known as the Lahori group). However the support of God was with the Khalifa and with the election of Hadhrat Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad(ra) the Ahmadiyya Community continued to progress and expand, and the small dissident group dwindled steadily. A detailed account relating to this episode,  written by Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) in Urdu entitled A’inah-e-Sadaqat (Mirror of Truth) and an English version  produced in 1924 entitled The Truth about the Split that has been partly reproduced in the earlier section.

In his first address to the Community, Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) reminded the community of the importance of the system of Khilafat.

After reciting the Shahada Huzur said, Listen! Friends! It is my belief and firm conviction that Allah the Almighty is Our Lord: He is One and has no partner. My Dear Ones! It is my belief that no one can now come who can abrogate a single iota from the shari’ah (law) brought by Our Holy Master (Hadhrat Muhammad Mustafa(sa)).

My Dear Ones! That beloved master of mine is the leader of all Prophets; his status holds such glory that by adopting absolute bondage, absolute obedience and perfect loyalty to him, a person can reach the status of closeness to Allah. It is true that only the Holy Prophet(saw) enjoys such glorious stature that being enslaved to him can raise a person to an exalted status. This is my belief and I make this statement with perfect conviction.

Furthermore, it is my belief that the Holy Qur’an is that beloved book that was revealed to the Holy Prophet(saw) and it is the most perfect book (Khaatam-ul-Kutub) and the complete Law (Khaatam-ul-Sharaa’i‘).

Further I state my absolute conviction that the Promised Messiah(as) was the same appointed one about whom the prophecy is recorded in Sahih Muslim. He is the same Imam whose advent was foretold in Sahih Bukhari. Again I stress that nothing out of the Sharia of Muhammad(saw) can ever be abrogated. Follow in the footsteps of the companions of the Holy Prophet(saw) (Allah be pleased with them) as they were exemplary in prayers and training.

After the demise of the Holy Prophet(saw) the second consensus which took place was the establishment of the rightly-guided Khilafat. Observe closely and study the history of Islam. You will find that the progress the Muslims attained during the time of the rightly-guided Caliphs began to decline when the Khilafat turned merely into state rule, so much so that you can see for yourselves today the state of Islam and that of the followers of Islam.

After thirteen hundred years, in accord with the promises given by the Holy Prophet(saw), Allah the Almighty sent the Promised Messiah(as) by way of a prophet.

May Allah the Almighty grant a very high status amongst his chosen servants to Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih I and shower countless blessings and mercy on his soul. Just as his heart and soul brimmed with the love of the Holy Prophet(saw) and the Promised Messiah(as), may Allah grant him closeness to them in heaven as well.

He was the first Khalifa (successor) of this Movement and we had all taken Bai‘at at his hand. As long as this Movement continues, faith will continue to prosper physically and spiritually.

Right now you have all cried out loud that I should undertake this burden, and through your Bai‘at you have expressed it, therefore, I deemed it fitting to reiterate my faith before you.

I tell you honestly that my heart is fearful and I find myself weak. A saying of the Holy Prophet(saw) states that you must not ask your slave to do something beyond him. Now that you have enslaved me do not ask of me things which I cannot do. I know that I am weak and sinful. How can I claim that I will guide the world and spread the truth and [show] the right path?

We are few in numbers whereas the opponents of faith are vast in numbers; but by the Grace and Mercy of Our Lord our hope is never-ending.

You have placed this burden on my shoulders, so hear me! Help me discharge this responsibility. What that help requires is to seek His Grace and Guidance. In seeking the pleasure of God Almighty, obey me.

I am a human being and a weak human. If I have any shortcomings then overlook them. If you make mistakes then I make a pledge in the name of Allah the Almighty that I will overlook and forgive your mistakes.

My and your collective effort has to be focussed upon achieving the aims of this community in its practical form. Strengthen the bond that you have created with me with your loyalty. Together we will, by the Grace of God, overlook our minor faults. You will have to be obedient to me in all things good (Amr-bil-Ma‘aroof). If, God forbid, I were to say that God is not One, I swear to you in the name of the One true God Who is the holder of life of each one of us, Who is One and has no partner, about Whom the Holy Qur’an tells us that there is nothing like Him, then do not believe me.

Do not believe me if, God forbid, I were to point out any defect of prophethood. I ask you, in the name of God, not to believe me if I tell you of any defect in the Holy Qur’an. If I say anything against the teaching the Promised Messiah(as) has given us after revelation from Allah the Almighty then do not believe me.

But I say, and say it again, do not be disobedient to me when I ask you to follow me in all things good. If you submit and work with obedience and strengthen this pledge you have made then remember that Allah the Almighty will help us and our collective prayers will succeed. I believe firmly that I will be helped…

The mission which the Promised Messiah(as) has established has been entrusted to me at its appointed time. Hence, pray, strengthen your relationships; and try to visit Qadian repeatedly. I heard the Promised Messiah(as) say, and I heard him say it often that I fear the one who does not visit Qadian frequently is at risk of having some flaw in his faith.

Our first task is to spread Islam and make concerted efforts so that the Mercy and Blessings of Allah the Almighty will rain down upon us. I say to you again and again and yet again that now that you have undertaken the Bai’at and established a bond with me, display loyalty in this relationship, and remember me in your prayers.

I will certainly remember you in my prayers. Of course I have been praying for you. There has been no submission I ever made to Allah the Almighty where I did not pray for the Ahmadi people.

Listen again: Never do anything that is done by those disloyal to Allah the Almighty. Our prayers should be that we live and die as Muslims.(4)

Some aspects of the Second Khilafat of Ahmadiyyat

During the second Khilafat of Ahmadiyyat enormous steps took place in the propagation of Islam throughout the world. Land for a mosque and mission house in London had been purchased and in a visit to the UK in 1924, Hadhrat Khalifa-tul-Masih II(ra) himself laid the foundation stone of the mosque. This mosque, the first to be built in London by Muslims, and for which the ladies of India gave their gold ornaments, was completed two years later.

Visit to London, 1924

The main purpose of Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II’s visit to the UK was also to attend the World Conference of Religions where leading members of different faiths were invited to address the meeting. Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih left Qadian on 12 July with a party of 10 persons accompanying him. The party sailed from Bombay on the morning of 15 July and the ship reached Aden eight days later. The ship entered Port Said on the evening of 28 and Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih stayed in Cairo for 3 days. He then proceeded to Jerusalem and Damascus.

Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) arrived in London on 22 August 1924 and stayed at 6 Chesham Place, Belgravia, SW1. In a report of the visit published in the Review of Religions October 1924 p. 371, it is written that “The news of His Holiness’s visit to London was published along with suitable notes in most of the important papers in London. The first public lecture which His Holiness gave in England is the one which His Holiness delivered in Portsmouth on 13 September”.(5)

The address in Portsmouth, at Piles Hall was delivered before a large audience and is entitled, “A Message from Heaven” (reproduced in The Review of Religions, Jan 2003).

The London Conference of Living Religions began on 22 September 1924. Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II’s paper on “The Ahmadiyya Movement” was presented on 23 September and was read out by Chaudhry Muhammad Zafrulla Khan. The paper was well-received and much appreciated:

“People sat with rapt attention and many seemed to jump with pleasure at every new phase of Islam discovered. … At the close of the lecture people cheered and cheered again and the president had to wait some minutes to make his remarks. He thanked His Holiness  for having so beautifully explained to them the religious truths”. (Review of Religions, October 1924)(6)

At 4pm on 19 October 1924,  Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) laid the foundation stone of the London Mosque with over 200 people of various nationalities and religious beliefs present at the ceremony. Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) delivered a short address in which he explained that a mosque was a place to worship and serve God alone. A telegram dated 20 October 1924 from Maulvi Abdur Rahim Dard to Hadhrat Maulvi Sher ‘Ali in Qadian states that Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih said he hoped ‘that this mosque would help to remove all friction and strife and establish peace, amity and goodwill among men …’ (Review of Religions, November 1924)(7)

Promotion of Religious Harmony

It was during the second Khilafat that inter-faith and intra-faith conferences promoting religious harmony were introduced. Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih wished that non Muslims should be made aware of the true facts regarding the life and character of the Holy Prophet of Islam(saw). A scheme (inaugurated on 17 June 1928) established public meetings each year where speeches were given by Muslims and non-Muslims on this subject. Some time after this a different kind of conference (Religious Founders Day) was also introduced. At these meetings members of different faiths were invited to speak on their Religious Founder with respect to a set theme. These gatherings helped to improve inter-communal relations and to remove miscon-ceptions and misunderstandings, and have continued to this day.

Tahrik Jadid

In 1934, Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II launched a scheme known as the Tahrik Jadid (lit.new appeal) through which, over the course of time and with the ever-increasing financial sacrifices of members of the community throughout the world, huge advances in the propagation of Islam were to occur. Mosques and missions were established.The scheme has been responsible for the opening of schools, hospitals and dispensaries in many different parts of the world. In his book Ahmadiyyat The Renaissance of Islam, Sir Zafrulla Khan writes:

All this activity is instrumental in the effort of achieving the ultimate purpose of the Movement, namely, the cultivation of the highest moral and spiritual qualities, seeking all the time to establish communion with God for the purpose of winning His pleasure and rendering beneficent service to His creatures without any discrimination”. (8)

Earlier in 1934, the Ahmadiyya Community faced severe opposition from a political group called the Majlis Ahrar-e-Islam (lit. society of the free-born but actually drawing on hardened extremists). The Ahrar had, in October that year, held a conference at a location close to Qadian at which inflammatory and provocative speeches were made against the Ahmadiyya Community. Despite these outrageous actions, members of the Community showed great restraint, which had the effect of stopping the situation from escalating.

It was against this background, during the course of three Friday sermons (23, 30 November and 7 December 1934), that Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II put forward the Scheme of Tahrik Jadid. Initially the Scheme was for a period of three years but it was later made permanent. The Scheme encouraged simple living, financial sacrifice and devoting time for the service and propagation of Islam. In the sermons on 23 and 30 November, nineteen demands were presented which would help achieve the objectives of the Scheme. In the sermon of 30 November, Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) said regarding these demands:

“Each one of them has been selected after long deliberation. There is not a single one of them that will not be useful in the progress of the Jama’at. Each one of them is like a seed: such a seed that is deemed to grow enormously, turn into a full grown tree, and one that will subdue our enemies. There is none out of them that could be disregarded. There is none without which structure of our progress can reach completion. Thus I say to the people of my Jama’at, whoever can, must participate and this way help the Jama’at flourish sooner and try to attain the blessings of Allah.”(9)

Establishment of missions around the world

Missions were established as early as 1913 in the UK and 1915 in Ceylon and Mauritius and 1921 saw the beginning of the propagation of Islam in America and Africa.

Under the Tahrik Jadid scheme, missionaries were sent to many parts of the world, including West and East Africa, the Middle East and Trinidad and Guyana. In Europe the countries to which missionaries were sent included Spain, Italy, Albania, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Poland and Switzerland, although in some countries, the missions had to be closed due to local difficulties period.

The first Ahmadiyya mosque in Europe was the Fazl Mosque in London the foundation stone of which was laid in 1924. The second mosque in Europe was constructed in the Hague, Holland and a mission was established in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1956. In 1957 the foundation stone was laid of the Fazl-e-Umar mosque in Hamburg and the following year in 1958, the Masjid Noor in Frankfurt was inaugurated. A plot of land was acquired for a mosque in Zurich in 1959 and the foundation stone of this mosque was laid on the 25 August 1962.

During the second Khilafat, the Holy Qur’an was translated into several languages: a Dutch translation was carried out in 1952 and a Danish translation in 1961. The German translation of the Holy Qur’an was published in 1953 with a second edition appearing in 1959.

Through the network of 46 foreign missions initiated under the second Khilafat, and which progressively expanded over the course of time, a prophecy of the Promised Messiah(as) was fulfilled in causing the message of the Promised Messiah(as) to reach the corners of the earth.

The establishment of the Tahrik Jadid was of historic importance and brought enormous benefits. All the Jama’at’s activities outside the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent continued to be administered as part of the Tahrik Jadid and today the Tahrik Jadid manages missions in 189 countries (as in January 2008) under the supervision of the Khalifatul Masih.

Claim of Musleh Mau‘ood (The Promised Reformer)

For various reasons Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) refrained for some time from making any positive claim that he was the subject of the prophecy of 20 February 1886. In June 1937, he wrote in a letter:

‘…So far as I have reflected on these prophecies, 90% of them are in accord with the achievements of the period of my Khilafat. As I do not consider that it is necessary for the person who is the subject of these prophecies to claim that the prophecies have been fulfilled in his person or refer to him, I do not deem it necessary to make such a claim. I do consider, however, that God Almighty has fulfilled the purpose of these pro-phecies to a large degree through me….’ (10)

Later in a Friday sermon in 1940 he stated:

‘People have tried that I should claim that I am the Promised Reformer, but I have never considered this necessary… f I am in truth and in fact the Promised Reformer, my position is not affected by my failure to make such a claim.’(11)

Thus despite being convinced that he was indeed the Reformer mentioned in the prophecies of the Promised Messiah(as), Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) did not wish at that time to make this claim.

However, in 1944 Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) was informed by Allah through a dream of his august position. At the time he was briefly staying in Lahore at the house of Shaikh Bashir Ahmad Advocate on 13 Temple Road.  The contents of the dream left him in no doubt that a public announcement that he was the Promised Reformer had become necessary. He related this dream on 28 January 1944 in detail in the Friday sermon and made the announcement. He began with the remarks:

‘I wish to state something today which I find it difficult to set forth having regard to my temperament, but as some prophecies and Divine decrees are involved in making this exposition I cannot refrain from making it despite my reluctance’.(12)

A further announcement with regard to this dream was made at a specially convened meeting on 20 February 1944 at Hoshiarpur. This was on the same day and at the same place where 58 years earlier the Promised Messiah(as) had issued the prophecy. In the book Ahmadiyyat – the Renaissance of Islam, Sir Zafrulla Khan describes the atmosphere at the meeting:

“Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II opened his address with the recitation of Surah Fatihah, repeating some of the verses in a voice steeped in emotion and followed it up with several supplications from the Holy Qur’an. The audience was deeply affected and repeated the supplications after him with streaming eyes and convulsed hearts. Thereafter he announced the background of the prophecy of the Promised Messiah of 20 February 1886 and explained how every part of it had been fulfilled in a wonderful manner despite adverse conditions. ..”(13)

Further meetings on the same subject of the Promised Reformer were held in Lahore on 12 March 1944, Ludhiana on 23 March 1944 and Delhi on 16 April 1944.

No one who really knew Hadhrat Khalifa-tul-Masih II, or studied his life carefully would have been in doubt that he indeed was the Musleh Mau‘ood whose advent had been prophesied by the Promised Messiah(as). The fulfilment of this prophecy provides us with a mighty sign in favour of the truth of the Promised Messiah(as) and his claim. The prophecy of Musleh Mau‘ood is remembered each year all over the world in specially convened meetings.

Administration

Early on in the second Khilafat, Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II convened a Majlis Shura to discuss how to further the propagation of Islam. In 1922 Majlis Shura (advisory consultative council) became a permanent institution in the Community. It normally meets annually to submit advice for consideration by the Khalifa on various matters concerning the Community.

In 1919, various departments (Nizamats) were established, thereby strengthening the administrative structure of the Community.

Later, auxiliary organisations for various sections of the Community were set up, the first being for ladies in the Community: Lajna Ima’illah for ladies over the age of 15 (set up in 1922) and Majlis Nasiratul Ahmadiyya for girls under the age of 15. On 27 December 1944, during the Annual Conference of the Community, Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra), addressing the ladies, urged members of the newly-established association to try to ensure literacy among all members, to make sure that the principal commandments of Islam were understood and to make sure they knew the meaning of and philosophy behind the prayers (salaat)(14). Some time later, similar auxiliary organisations for men were established: Majlis Khuddamul Ahmadiyya for men under 40 (in 1938), Majlis Ansarullah for men over 40 and Atfal-ul-Ahmadiyya for boys under the age of 15.

The Ta‘limul Islam High School had originally been set up during the time of the Promised Messiah(as) and had developed to the level of an Intermediate College, but had been closed in 1905. The Ta‘limul Islam College was re-established with a curriculum up to degree level in 1944, and on partition of the country moved temporarily to Lahore, while the new premises in Rabwah were constructed. It was open to all suitably qualified students. On the occasion of the opening of the College in 1944, Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) stated that:

“The doors of the College will be open to all students irrespective of caste and creed. All communities are in need of education and it is our duty, as human beings, that we should make education possible and easy for everyone. … The doors of this College will be open to everyone and this institution shall provide all possible help to all those who seek to derive benefit from it”.(15)

The foundation of the Ta‘limul Islam College in Rabwah was laid on 26 June 1953.

Peace Amongst Communities

Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) had deep insight into secular as well as spiritual matters. He guided his volunteers and led the anti-Shuddhi movement. Shuddhi refers to reverting to Hinduism from another religion. Swami Shraddanand (Mahatama Munshiram) of Arya Samaj started the forceful reversions. Ahmadi volunteers guided the people back to their faith.

In the dispute over Kashmir during the 1930s, the Khalifa was to play an important role in securing fundamental social and political rights for Muslims in Kashmir.

Rabwah

Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) guided the Community through the difficult times of partition of the Indian subcontinent in 1947. Following partition some of the Community’s central administrative offices were relocated to Lahore, although a contingent of 313 Ahmadis (coincidentally the number in the Muslim army that defeated the Makkan invaders at the Battle of Badr) volunteered to remain to look after the Centre in Qadian. Some time later the Ahmadiyya Community acquired about 1000 acres of land of almost wilderness which was to become the Headquarters of the Community in Pakistan. The foundation of Rabwah, as the town was named, was laid by Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) on 20 September 1948.

The foundation stone of the first mosque in Rabwah was laid the following year by Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) on 3 October 1949. The site was the same one that Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) had offered the first prayer on 20 September 1948 [16]. Over the years, the once barren area turned into a green and active town. In 1956, Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) laid the foundation stone of the Fazl-e-Umar hospital in Rabwah and the hospital was completed two years later and inaugurated by Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) on 21 September 1958. The facilities at the hospital continue to expand and develop.

Waqf Jadid

On 27 December 1957, Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) started  New Dedication (Tahrik Waqf Jadid), the primary objective of which was to look after the spiritual upbringing of the members living in the rural communities. On 1 February 1958, fourteen mu‘allimeen (teachers) were despatched to selected rural areas of the country. Now the number has reached into thousands. Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) appointed Sahibzada Mirza Tahir Ahmad (who was later to become Khalifatul Masih IV) as the first Director (Nazim Irshad) of Waqf Jadid.

Visit to Europe 1955

In 1955, the Khalifatul Masih made a tour of Europe visiting various European missions. The tour went through Damascus and Lebanon, and included Geneva, Zurich, Hamburg and The Hague. A conference presided by the Khalifatul Masih was held in London  on the 22, 23 and 24 July 1955 the delegates of which included missionaries from America, UK, Switzerland, Germany, Spain, Holland, Nigeria and Trinidad(17).

Lectures and writings

His deep intelligence and God-given knowledge enabled him to write some 200 books, and deliver numerous speeches and lectures. Among the many books written by Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) are Introduction to the Study of the Holy Qur’an, Invitation to Ahmadiyyat, Nizam-e-Nau (A New World Order), Remembrance of Allah, The Truth about the Split and The Way of the Seekers. Also published during the second Khilafat of Ahmadiyyat was an in-depth commentary of the Holy Qur’an in 10 volumes (the Tafseer-e-Kabir) as well as a shorter commentary (the Tafsir-e-Saghir).

In Ahmadiyyat-the Renaissance of Islam, Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan writes:

“He possessed great versatility of mind and the range of his intellect was unmatched among his contemporaries. These qualities were strikingly illustrated in his speeches and writings. … His speeches were intellectual banquets at which those present were regaled to their great delight and enjoyment. In that guise he stimulated their intellects, enlivened their faculties, incited them to climb moral and spiritual heights and sent them home greatly enriched …” (18)

On 26 February 1919, Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II delivered a lecture at an extraordinary meeting of the Martin Historical Society in the Islamia College Hall. The lecture was on “A chapter from the early history of Islam: causes of dissension among the early Muslims”. In his preface to the Urdu edition of the lecture, Syed Abdul Qadir, M.A. Professor of History, Islamia College, and President of the Society, wrote:

The very name of Hadhrat Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad, the scholary son of a scholarly father, is a sufficient guarantee of the lecture being highly learned. I too know little of the history of Islam, and can say without fear of contradiction that very few historians, both among the Muslims and the non-Muslims, have been able to discover the real causes of those dissensions that occurred during the days of Hadhrat Uthman. Hadhrat Mirza Sahib has not only succeeded in finding out the true causes of the first civil war among the Muslims but has stated in a lucid and graphic manner the events which shook the palace of the Caliphate for many years. I think those interested in Islamic history have never come across such a reasoned exposition as this. The truth is that the more a person will study original historical works on this subject, the more he will appreciate the contents of the paper.”(19)

The period of the second Khilafat extended almost 52 years from 13 March 1914 to 8 November 1965. Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II’s(ra), inspiring addresses, sermons and speeches served to raise the moral and spiritual standards of the Community. He took a genuine and personal interest in all his members. He had a detailed and profound knowledge of the Holy Qur’an, vividly illustrated in his commentaries of the Holy Qur’an – the Tafsir-e-Kabir (Larger Commentary) and the Tafsir-e-Saghir (Shorter Commentary), which were published during the second Khilafat and which have served as a wealth of knowledge and insight. The constant encouragement of members towards good was maintained till the end of his life.

On 10 March 1954, Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II(as) was attacked in the neck with a dagger after the evening prayers by a new convert.  But despite his frail health and this serious injury, he continued with the larger commentary on the Holy Qur’an, sometimes unable to lead the prayer services.  He passed away during the night of 8 November and the morning of 9 November 1965.

The words of Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan explain the importance of the prophecy of Musleh Mau‘ood:

The fulfilment of the whole cluster of the grand predictions comprised in the prophecy leaves no room for a shadow of doubt that the prophecy was made under Divine direction and its fulfilment firmly establishes the existence of God, the truth of the Holy Prophet of Islam(saw), the Divine origin of the Holy Qur’an, the truth of the Promised Messiah and the righteousness of Hadhrat Khalifat-ul-Masih II, and the fact that he was the Divinely appointed Successor of the Promised Messiah. His outstanding qualities and his astonishing record of high achievement in so many fields of human endeavour, all related to the revival of the faith and the supremacy of Islam over all other religions, marked him out as a great and shining figure in the annals of the Renaissance of Islam in the latter days.”(20)

References

1. Announcement of 20 February 1886, taken from Ahmadiyyat – The Renaissance of Islam by Muhammad Zafrulla Khan, 1978 Tabshir Publications

2. Ibid.

3. Ibid.

4. Al-Fazl, 21 March 1914. Sawaneh Fazl-e-Umar, Vol I, Pg. 339-342

5. Review of Religions, October 1924 p.371

6. Ibid.

7. Review of Religions, November 1924

8. Ahmadiyyat The Renaissance of Islam by Muhammad Zafrulla Khan, 1978 Tabshir Publications

9. Ahmadiyya Gazette (USA) August 2003

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid.

12. Ibid.

13. Ibid.

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid.

16. Review of Religions.

17. Muslim Herald, Sep/Oct 1961.

18. Ahmadiyyat The Renaissance of Islam by Muhammad Zafrulla Khan, 1978 Tabshir Publications

19. Review of Religions, January 1921, Vol XX, No.1.

20. Al Fazl, 11th November 1965.

20. Ahmadiyyat The Renaissance of Islam by Muhammad Zafrulla Khan, 1978 Tabshir Publications.

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