Fazal Malik, Charlottetown, Canada
Note to the reader: Lieutenant Colonel Montagu William Douglas C.I.E, C.S.I. had a distinguished career, one dotted with notable achievements and promotions. This article is a glimpse of his life and looks at a select few achievements. In this article, I have decided to use only one title: Captain Douglas.
There are two reasons for this. Firstly, this is the title that is used repeatedly in the blessed writings of the Promised Messiah (as) and secondly, having a consistent title permits a rhythm in the article, saving the reader from any confusion.
A table of his career progression along with the years, is given at the end of the article, for historical purposes.
Captain Douglas and the Messiah (as)
The very first time Captain Douglas caught a glimpse of Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as), the Promised Messiah, was at a train station in Batala, India. At the time, Indian trains were racially segregated, so it was unlikely that a travelling English officer would meet, let alone remember, an Indian citizen. As Captain Douglas started to cross the platform, he saw a man walking with his eyes on the ground, light radiating from his being. The magnetism of this man’s personality took hold of the Captain, who stood frozen, even after Hazrat Ahmad (as) had left the platform. ‘I could not take my eyes off him,’ recalled Captain Douglas. Unknown to both, they were destined to meet very soon.
When logic frustrates those who are irrational, they revert to persecution. Being persecuted for the truth is the mark of prophets. Be it Prophet Abraham (as) Moses (as), Jesus (as) or Ahmad (as), the frustration of those who could not see the logic in God’s design has resulted in these prophets being presented to the highest authorities of the land. In the case of the Promised Messiah (as), fortunately, the British had implemented the Rule of Law and the enmity of Christians, Muslims and Hindus alike met with the due process of law.
In 1897, well after this incident at the Batala railway station, Captain Douglas met the Messiah (as) in a case known as Ahmad vs. Martyn-Clark. A charge against Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) – abetment of murder – was brought forward by Dr. Henry Martyn-Clarke, a medical missionary with the Church Missionary Society. Some years earlier, Dr. Clarke had suffered a humiliating defeat at the hands of the Promised Messiah (as) in a religious debate and he now wanted an opportunity to strike back at the Messiah (as). Together with Arya Samaj and the orthodox Muslim community, he formulated a plot, alleging that Hazrat Ahmad (as) had sent one of his disciples to murder Dr. Martyn-Clark.
The District Magistrate, Captain Douglas, was not convinced by either the witnesses or the allegation. After listening to the statements, he was certain that the case held no merit and that the key witness – Abdul Hamid – had been coached. Later in life, he frequently mentioned an incident that marked the turning point of the trial. One afternoon, after the statements had been recorded, he was pacing madly at the train station. When asked by a subordinate, he responded that everywhere he turned he could see the angelic face of Hazrat Ahmad (as) saying, ‘I am innocent.’ Upon receiving some advice, he decided to consult a colleague and after deliberation, Abdul Hamid was cross-examined. Breaking down in tears, Abdul Hamid confessed that he had been pressured by the Church to falsely testify. Captain Douglas, honest man that he was, immediately dismissed the case against Hazrat Ahmad (as) and offered him the option to sue Dr. Martyn-Clark for perjury and malicious prosecution. The Promised Messiah (as) declined, saying, ‘I have no need to. It is sufficient for me that Allah has honourably discharged me.’ This response deeply resonated with Captain Douglas. Though the two would not meet again, this incident started a life-long affinity that was cherished by Captain Douglas even later in life.
The outcome of this case, though monumental on many fronts, was not surprising to the Promised Messiah (as). As far as three months before the trial took place, he had a vision that someone would try to cause him harm, ‘but God and His angels will protect you.’ During the course of the proceedings, he received other revelations foretelling his acquittal from the charge. All these revelations, including the details of the case, are published in his book Kitab-ul-Bariyyah.
To a reader in the 21st century, living in the Western world, the value of this case may seem odd. We are, by the grace of God, living in a time where we have a reasonable expectation of an unbiased judicial system. However, in 19th-century British India, the Church was essentially seen as god . It was the most powerful institution and exerted enormous pressure and influence on all aspects of life. For a British judge in the Indian Civil Service under the British government to take a stand against such a powerful institution and serve justice is truly a remarkable feat.
Becoming Colonel and Beyond
How did Captain Douglas become such a man? Montagu William Douglas was born to Edward Douglas – the Assistant Colonial Secretary in Mauritius – and Anne Arbuthnot on November 23, 1863, in Mauritius. After his father’s demise in 1867, the family moved to the UK, where he joined an elite private school, Fettes College in Edinburgh. From an early age, he exhibited a keen sense for justice and strong leadership abilities. Perhaps his first endeavour at responsibility came at Fettes College, where he became the school prefect – a position of honour accorded to a student by the school community. As a promising young man, he joined the two sports that ‘run in the English blood’, rugby and cricket. His dedication and sportsmanship afforded him the position of captain on the cricket team. He was described as ‘a very patient bat,’ and one who ‘follows up very hard.’ These two qualities became clearly evident as he progressed through life.
Little is known of Captain Douglas between 1897 – the year of the landmark case Ahmad vs. Martyn-Clark – and his appointment as the Chief Commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in 1913, a post he held until retirement in 1920. In the interim period, he was appointed the Deputy Commissioner of Delhi, a crucial station in British India.
Delhi had become more significant in the 19th century. The Mutiny of 1857 – a precursor to the movement for independence from British rule – had resulted in heavy losses of both life and capital and Delhi had borne the brunt. Where the destruction had altered the landscape of Delhi, its rebuilding had served to turn Delhi into a symbol of victory. In view of its historical significance, Delhi had been selected to host the formal celebrations in 1877, proclaiming Queen Victoria as the Empress of India. And in 1903, the same venue was used to celebrate the coronation of King Edward VII, becoming known as Coronation Park. In his role as the Deputy Commissioner of Delhi, Captain Montagu W. Douglas was appointed to the Executive Committee of Delhi Durbar – named after the practice of Mughal kings who would routinely hold open public court. In this role, he was primarily responsible for all of the preparatory work with regards to the 1903 celebrations, while also addressing the demands made by the Punjab Government.
Having been promoted to the rank of Major and served as the Deputy Commissioner of Delhi for four years, Captain Douglas was the prime candidate for the position of the Superintendent of Hill States in Shimla – the summer capital of British India and that of the former Bushahr state. The dawn of the 20th century was a turbulent time in her political history and the stability of Shimla was of paramount importance to the British Raj.,  One of the Hill States – Bhagal – had played an important role during the Mutiny of 1857. In 1905 the people of Bhagal State rose to revolt again, refusing to pay the land revenue and disobeying the state orders. The agitation led to a breakdown of the state administration. This revolt was suppressed with the help of the Captain Douglas.
Being of exceptional moral nature and ethical upbringing, Captain Douglas was troubled by some of the customs that were prevalent in the region, two of them being reet and polyandry. In 1907, Captain Douglas worked with the heads of all 28 Hill States in the Bushahr State to initiate a campaign to end the practice of reet. During his tenure, he had reached an agreement and laid out the plans on how to achieve such a monumental task. Over the span of the next twenty years, through concentrated educational efforts by humanitarian and welfare organizations, the custom of reet came to an end. The end of reet, coupled with general awareness among the population, also led to the slow demise of polyandry.
In 1907, the political turmoil in the Hill States that had ensued since the turn of the century escalated. The only son of the Raja of Bushahr (capital of the Hill States), Tikka Raghunath Singh, had died prematurely in 1898. With no apparent heir to the throne, the Raja adopted Surendra Shah, a brother of the Raja of Garhwal State. Many hopeful incumbents protested and lodged complaints with the Lieutenant Governor of Punjab. The Lieutenant Governor referred the case to Captain Douglas to give a legal opinion regarding the adoption. After an extensive inquiry lasting over a year, taking into account the views of locals, relatives, and state officials, Captain Douglas recommended the adoption of Surendra Shah to be valid and rejected all other claims to the throne.
Once the political situation in Shimla and the Hill States had been stabilised, Captain Douglas was appointed the Administrator of Lyallpur (now known as Faisalabad). After the annexation of Punjab in 1849, British colonial expansion in India had reached its peak. Having established stability in the country and wanting to expand agricultural trade with Europe, a plan was drawn up to populate the area south of the river Chenab; a rail link to Lahore would serve to expand trade requirements. This colonial establishment was named Lyallpur, the first planned city in British India.,
In 1910, Captain Douglas became the administrator of Lyallpur, the same year that the railway link was established with Lahore. During his tenure at Lyallpur, he oversaw the expansion and development plans of Lyallpur as a city. The city was being built from the ground up in an area consisting largely of farmland, and as a consequence, there was increased boredom and fatigue among the British officers and their families. Captain Douglas addressed the need to maximise the productivity of workers by conceiving a plan for a local leisure club that would tend to the social needs of the British officers and their families. With finesse, he worked with various levels of the government to secure the necessary resources and successfully built the first club in the region. Chenab Club of Lyallpur, named after the Chenab colony expansion project, was established in 1910, and Captain Douglas became its first president. This club still thrives in the renamed city of Faisalabad.
Kalapani – Hell on Earth
Having successfully initiated the plans for the new city of Lyallpur, Captain Douglas was transferred to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands as the Chief Commissioner. He also was made the Superintendent of Port Blair, a penal colony established specially to curb the rising political tide in India. Historically, this was a strategic placement for many reasons. Located some 1,200 kilometres south of Kolkata in the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are over 5,000 years old, boasting unparalleled beauty, panoramic wonders and mountains towering against the sky. Their modern history, however, is rife with tragic tales and gruesome events. The British first established a small settlement here in 1789; it was abandoned hurriedly in 1796 due to an alarmingly high death rate as well as political and commercial instability. With the exception of a brief military presence during the Burmese war of 1824, these islands were left alone. However, after the significant uprising resulting from the Mutiny of 1857, it was deemed essential to isolate the political prisoners, thus guarding the masses from their ideology.
The British government saw political convicts as laborers who could be used to secure long-term colonial expansion plans. Thus began the infamous historic penal colony in the Andamans named Kalapani. Over its 87-year existence, Kalapani housed ‘habitual and specially dangerous criminals’ as well as political prisoners of the British Raj.The penal colony was breeding grounds for many social and moral ills. Same-sex contact and sexual violence became a norm, and the moral ills of prostitution and sodomy became deeply rooted in the culture. Convicts were allowed to marry, but many women refused to do so since marriage generally meant forced prostitution with the husband living off the proceeds.
The earlier superintendents had written to the British Raj urging them to take appropriate action, but it was Captain Douglas who, horrified by the ills that he witnessed, was persistent in his pleas to the government. Unfortunately, the First World War had begun and any problems relating to the penal colony would have to wait. Undeterred by the lack of response by the government, Captain Douglas continued his campaign to close down the colony and continued building his case based on statements by prisoners and witnesses to various crimes. His tireless efforts, combined with the political and social outrage against Kalapani on the Indian subcontinent, resulted in the formation of the Jail Commission in 1919. His exhaustive work formed the basis of the discussions and compelled the authorities to take decisive steps. A bill for the abolition of the punishment at Port Blair (Kalapani) was introduced in the legislative assembly in September 1922. The majority of the prisoners were moved within the decade, although it would be many years before the penal colony would shut down completely, in 1939.
The colonisation of the Andamans continued with the voluntary migration of various communities from British India. This was supported by the thriving free population of shopkeepers, traders, and policemen who had resided on the Island from the pre-1921 period. After a thriving career, full of exceptional work, delicately balancing the scales of justice, Captain Douglas retired on the afternoon of May 22, 1920.
Captain Douglas in Retirement
After his retirement, Montagu Douglas relocated to London, where he decorated the walls of his Coleherne Court apartment with watercolour paintings from his own brush; he was a well-established painter who exhibited throughout London. He also became one of the founding members of the Shakespeare Fellowship – a society dedicated to solving the problem of Shakespearean authorship. The society was headed by his friend and former colleague, Colonel Ward, who was in charge of defending London from air strikes during the First World War. The society was formed due to dissatisfaction with the Stratfordian theory which posited that William Shakespeare wrote his own plays. During his membership at the Shakespeare Fellowship, he authored three books and to date, despite new research into the man behind the pen name Shakespeare, his book, The Case for the Earl of Oxford as Shakespeare, remains the most persuasive.
Captain Douglas was also well-versed in Urdu and became a frequent visitor at the London Mosque (Fazl Mosque), starting as early as 1922. He would attend events at the mosque, deliver lectures and meet with Ahmadiyya dignitaries where possible. He was a kind person with a heart of gold, one who honoured Ahmadi visitors even during illness and treated them with kindness. During a visit by Hazrat Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmad (ra), the Second Worldwide Head of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, he remarked ‘you are the son of my honourable friend.’ This was, of course, in reference to Hazrat Ahmad (as). On many occasions, he spoke at length about the events of 1897 and would fondly tell the entire episode pertaining to the case, to anyone who inquired about his esteemed career. Many Ahmadi scholars and dignitaries visited this noble judge, the Pilate of this age, including Sir Zafarullah Khan, who later became the judge of International Court of Justice.
His lifetime of achievement was honoured by three distinct awards, two of which were given by the British government and the third which was bestowed upon him by the Promised Messiah (as). For his extraordinary contribution towards the British Indian government and loyalty to the throne, he was awarded the Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire as well as the Companion of the Order of the Star of India. But the Promised Messiah (as) bestowed the most distinctive honour when he called Captain Douglas the Noble Judge, as he was imbued with a judiciously enlightened disposition; and the Pilate of this age. This honour remains exclusive to Captain Douglas and will never be shared with another human until the end of time.
The importance of these titles – Noble Judge and the Pilate of our age – warrants a brief discussion.
Jesus of Nazareth, Messiah of Qadian, Pilate of Rome & Captain Douglas, the Noble Judge
In about 60 BCE, over half a century before the trail of Jesus Christ (as), the territories that once belonged to the Jewish people became part of the Roman Empire. The Romans permitted them self-rule and allowed creation of the Sanhedrin – the highest court in Judaism. The Sanhedrin could rule on religious matters, but it did not have the authority to carry out capital punishment. Only the Romans had that authority. That is why the Sanhedrin, after deciding Jesus (as) was worthy of death, brought him to Pontius Pilate, the governor of Judea.
The Jewish authorities wanted Jesus (as) executed for blasphemy, but such a charge held no merit in the Roman court. Therefore, the charge brought was that Jesus (as) claimed to be king of the Jews. He remained silent during most of the trial, not answering the false charges. This amazed Pilate greatly, and he became convinced that Jesus (as) was not guilty.
He did not immediately sentence Jesus (as) to be crucified, but offered the gathered crowd the chance to have him released. He had hoped that since Jesus (as) was a popular person among the Jews, the crowd would demand his release. As history bears witness, that did not happen, and in order to avert a revolt in riot-prone Judea, he eventually gave in to the pressure exerted by the Sanhedrin, and ordered the death of Jesus (as), becoming an infamous character in the history of the world.
Unlike Pilate, Captain Douglas saw through the flimsy case and despite the pressure to settle in favour of the Church, refused to capitulate to demands and honourably discharged the Promised Messiah (as). In his own words, the Promised Messiah (as) writes: ‘he courageously and stringently remained committed to the rules of the court and paid no heed to any external pressure, nor was he prejudiced by religion or ethnicity…To pass fair judgment is a difficult task. Unless one breaks off all their ties, they cannot rightly fulfil the duties of this office. However, I can honestly testify that this Pilate faithfully discharged his duty – whereas the first Pilate of Rome was unable to fulfil his duty so faithfully. His cowardice led to great hardships for the Messiah.’
‘The Valiant Never Taste of Death but Once’
Montagu William Douglas was an extraordinary man who dedicated his life to justice. His services to society were measurable, as can be seen by the numerous titles that he was awarded during his esteemed career. Even in retirement, he did not let go of the discipline that characterised his life. The Shakespeare Fellowship remembered him as ‘a first-rate chairman, fair and impartial and always prepared to give a hearing to views he did not share’. On 24 February 1957, the Just Pilate, the Noble Judge of time immemorial passed away in the small London neighbourhood of Ealing. A man of great talent, a champion of justice, was cremated and his ashes disbursed to the ground at a crematorium in Golders Green, just north of London.
|Entered North Staffordshire Regiment||1884|
|Arrived in India, March 21||1887|
|Deputy Commissioner, Delhi||1898-1903|
|Captain – Indian Affairs||1895|
|Member, Executive Committee, Coronation Durbar, Delhi,||1903|
|Deputy Commissioner, Lyallpur, Punjab||1910|
|Superintendent of Port Blair and Chief Commissionaire of Andaman and Nicobar islands||1913|
|Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE)||1903|
|Companion of the Order of the Star of India (CSI) ||1919|
About the Author: Fazal Masood Malik is an avid educator of Islamic values in contemporary society. He has traveled extensively in Atlantic Canada and the Prairies, educating people about Islam. His biography of the Promised Messiah (as) is currently under publication review, and he is co-authoring a biography of Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra). His articles have appeared in The Review of Religions and Al-Hakam, among other Ahmadiyya publications. Fazal has also edited various publications, such as Kindly Heretics (a biography of Ahmadi Muslims worldwide). He resides on the Eastern Shores of Canada in the Province of Prince Edward Island with his wife and two sons.
 Al-Fazl Rabwah, May 8, 2009. p 3.
 Eugene Stock, The History of the Church Missionary Society – Its Environment, its Men and its Work, Vol.3 (London: Church Missioanary Society, 1889), 476-477.
 From May 22nd to June 5th of 1893, a written debate took place between the Muslims and Christians of Amritsar. Dr. Henry Martyn-Clark, the organiser, termed it as the Jang-e-Muqaddas (Holy War). Abdullah Atham, a prolific debater, was represented Christianity and Hazrat Ahmad (as) represented Islam. The debate resulted in unprecedented success for Islam and the entire proceedings were published by Hazrat Ahmad (as) in a book aptly titled Jang-e-Muqaddas. For details, see the book Jang-e-Muqaddas by Hazrat Ahmad (as), published in Ruhani Khaza’in Vol. 6.
 Hazrat Mirza Mahmud Ahmad (ra), Khutbat-e-Mahmud, Vol. 38. (Rabwah, Pakistan: Fazle Omar Foundation) 77-84.
 Hazrat Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmad (ra), Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 13, (London: Islam International Publications), 414-416.
 Salahuddin Malik (M.A.), Seerat Hazrat Bhai Abdul Rahman Sahib Qadiani, Ashab-e-Ahmad, Vol. 9, 330.
 Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as), Ruhani Khaza’in Vol. 13 (London:Islam International Publications, 2008). The details of the cover page have been translated to Urdu and published inside the cover page of the book Kitab-ul-Bariyyah. In the printed book (or PDF), the translation of the cover page is listed on the inside of the cover page, making it the 37th page of the volume.
 In the Fettes school magazine of November 1881, he was described as being ‘a very patient bat, playing straight with a style of his own. Good field, and fair change bowler.’ In the April 1882 edition of the school magazine, his ability as a player of the 1st XV rugby team was described as ‘a very fine forward; he charges very quickly and follows up very hard.’ Interview with Craig W. Marshall, Archivist, Fettes College, Edinburgh, July 17, 2018.
 “The Delhi Durbar,” The Bioscope, December 11, 2011. Accessed February 10, 2019. https://thebioscope.net/2011/12/11/the-delhi-durbar/. Date Accessed: February 10, 2019.
 In 1857, suppressed by the British rule, citizens consisting of Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs, rose against their rulers. Collectively, they wanted to return to their ‘glorious’ past. There were several small outbreaks in the country, including many in the prisons. These events are collectively known as the First War of Independence or the Mutiny of 1857. From the Indian perspective, this is considered the first outbreak of an independence movement against the British rule. It is imperative to understand the events from both perspectives. The reader is encouraged to research further. For Indian perspective please see Singh, M. K., ed. Encyclopaedia of Indian War of Independence, 1857-1947: Era of 1857 revolt: Muslims and 1857 war of independence. Vol. 3. Anmol Publications, 2009. and for British perspective: https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100001240
 Accessed February 17, 2019. https://web.archive.org/web/20090513183442/https://www.charlottecory.com/travel/delhi_durbar.htm.
 Stephen Wheeler, “Appendix VI – Officers on Special Duty in Connection with the Delhi Durbar,” History of the Delhi Coronation Durbar, (London: John Murray), 1904), 292, and Lovat Fraser, At Delhi (Bombay: Times of India and Thacker & Co.), 1903, 209.
 Nestled between the Himalayan mountains and Punjab, the history of Hill States with India extends to the medieval times, with the first recorded interaction in the 1009 by Mahmud Ghanavi. Shimla, also spelled Simla, first attracted the attention of the British when, in 1815, the army was sent to fight the Nepalian invasion of Hill States. By the 1830s, summer homes started appearing, and in the 1860s, Shimla became the summer capital of British India. Shimla and many other Hill States are sites of resorts and summer houses. In winter, they serve as ski resorts.
 H. Montgomery Hyde, Simla and the Simla Hill States Under British Protection 1815-1835, (Lahore: Panjab University Press, 1961) 1-49.
 Raja Ram Chauhan, “History of Bushahr State: 1815-1948, ” (Ph.D Dissertation, Himachal Pradesh University, 2000) https://hdl.handle.net/10603/120961
 Accessed November 18, 2020. https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/jspui/bitstream/10603/121155/8/08_chapter%204.pdf and https://hpsolan.nic.in/history/
 Reet was an old custom where the woman could take on a new husband at will. The new ‘husband’ would be required to pay the former ‘husband’ compensation and grant a gift to the ‘bride’ for the temporary marriage. The practice became so widespread that some historical accounts describe the entire Shimla Hill-State as a big brothel. For further reading, please see: Yogesh Snehi, “Conjugality, Sexuality and Shastras: Debate on the Abolition of Reet in Colonial Himachal Pradesh.” The Indian Economic & Social History Review 43, no. 2 (2006): 163-197.
 Subhash Kapta, “Impact of British rule on society and economy of Himachal Pradesh A.D. 1815_1947,” (Ph.D Dissertation, Himachal Pradesh University. 2000). Accessed July 18, 2019. https://hdl.handle.net/10603/129169 Accessed July 18, 2019.
 Deed of Adoption, Submitted by Raja Shamsher Singh to Superintendent Shimla Hill States, dated 23 April 1907.
 Letter of Major M. W. Douglas, Superintendent Shimla Hill States, to Chief Secretary of Punjab, dated 11 November 1907.
 Accessed March 5, 2019 .https://faisalabad.dc.lhc.gov.pk/PublicPages/HistoryOfDistrict.aspx –
 Muhammad Abrar Ahmad, and Muhammad Iqbal Chawla, “History and Development of Lyallpur 1890-1947.” Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan 54, no. 1 (2017).
 Syed Afsar Sajid, “The Story of a Club: Chenab and its Rich History,” Pakistan Today March 13, 2014. Accessed Feb. 27, 2019. https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2014/03/15/the-story-of-a-club/
 Aparna Vaidik, Imperial Andamans (London: Palgrave McMillan, 2010) 39-42.
 Ujjwal Kumar Singh, “Political Prisoners in India, 1920-1977,” (Ph.D dissertation, University of London, 1996), 58-60. ProQuest Number: 10731591.
 Clare Anderson, The Indian Uprising of 1857-8: Prisons, Prisoners and Rebellion (London: Anthem Press, 2007). https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1gxp9x1.
 Manju Ludwig, “Murder in the Andamans: A Colonial Narrative of Sodomy, Jealousy and Violence,” South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal [Online], Free-Standing Articles, Online since 17 October 2013, connection on 23 February 2019, URL: https://journals.openedition.org/samaj/3633 ; DOI : 10.4000/samaj.3633
 Aparna Vaidik, Imperial Andamans (London: Palgrave McMillan, 2010), 169.
 For excellent, comprehensive discussion on the Andamans, and the role of some of the Superintendents including Captain Douglas, please see Aparna Vaidik’s Imperial Andamans: Colonial Encounter and Island History.
 Proceedings of the Home Department, July 1920, Proforma number 113, letter number 258, dated Shimla, 17th May 1920.
 Edward Martell, L. G. Pine, and Alberta Lawrence, Who was who Among English and European Authors 1931-1949: Based on Entries which First Appeared in ”The Author’s and Writer’s Who’s who and Reference Guide” (Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1978), 431.
 “Obituary,” The Shakespeare Fellowship News-Letter (sic). Obituary. Spring 1957, 11.
 Ahmad Tahir Mirza, compiler, Hayat-e-Shams (Tilford, Surrey: Islam International Publications, 2012), 463.
 Salahuddin Malik (M.A.), Seerat Hazrat Bhai Abdul Rahman Sahib Qadiani, Ashab-e-Ahmad, Vol. 9 (Rabwah, Pakisatn) 330.
 Safia Bashir Sami, Meeri Poonji Urdu (Qadian, India: Unitech Publications, 2013), 37-39.
 Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as), Noah’s Ark (Tilford, Surrey: Islam International Publications Ltd., 2012), 91.
 Ibid. p. 93.
 Raymond P. Scheindlin, A Short History of The Jewish People: From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).
 Craig A. Evans, and Stanley E. Porter Jr, eds, Dictionary of New Testament Background: A Compendium of Contemporary Biblical Scholarship (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2010), 1010-1018.
 Richard Wellington Husband, The Prosecution of Jesus: Its Date, History and Legality (Princeton University Press, 1916), Chapter IX.
 Mark 14:53–65, Matthew 26:57–68, Luke 22:63–71, and John 18:12–24.
 Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as), Noah’s Ark (Tilford, Surrey: Islam International Publications Ltd., 2012), 90-91.
 William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Circa 1599.
 “Obituary”, The Shakespeare Fellowship News-Letter (sic), Obituary, Spring 1957, 11.
 Golders Green Crematorium Cremation record. Register number 137950 (Cremation date: Feb 28, 1957). Record obtained July 11, 2018.
 History of Services of the Officers Serving under the Government of the Punjab and under the Chief Commissioner of the North-West Frontier Province (1st July 1915), 133-134.
 The Edinburgh Gazette, June 30, 1903, 671.
 Supplement to The London Gazette, 3 June 1919, 7047.