The Companions of the Holy Prophet (sa)

Friday Sermon Summary 29th July 2022: ‘Rightly Guided Caliphs – Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)’

After reciting Tashahhud, Ta`awwuz and Surah al-Fatihah, His Holiness, Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad (aba) said that he would continue highlighting incidents and expeditions from the life of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).

Battle of Heerah

His Holiness (aba) said that there was the Battle of Heerah. Hazrat Khalid (ra) set out from Amgheshiyah towards Heerah which was located by the Euphrates river, whose governor was a Persian. He had an idea that Hazrat Khalid (ra) would come to Heerah next, and so he had already begun preparations. Hence, the governor instructed his son to block the river’s water so as to hinder Hazrat Khalid (ra), who he anticipated would arrive by way of ships. When Hazrat Khalid’s (ra) ships could not longer move forward, he took a battalion of riders and headed towards the governor’s son, then the rest of the army and then the governor all of whom were defeated by Hazrat Khalid (ra). He then oversaw that the Euphrates was made to flow once again.

His Holiness (aba) said that upon seeing this, the people of Heerah betook themselves to four fortresses and prepared for further battle. Hazrat Khalid (ra) appointed people from his army to encircle each one of those fortresses, with the instructions to first invite them to Islam and if they accepted then they should be left alone. However, if they refused, then they should be given a day after which the Muslims should combat them. The people of Heerah rained down rocks upon the Muslims, and the Muslims fired back arrows. Seeing that they would ultimately suffer defeat, they said that they would accept one of the conditions, upon which they opened the doors of their fortresses and met with Hazrat Khalid (ra) who reprimanded them from their ways. Then the chieftains agreed to pay the Jizyah and an agreement was formed between them and the Muslims. However, after the demise of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), the people of Heerah became apostates once again. Then Hazrat Musanna (ra) conquered Heerah again during the era of Hazrat Umar (ra) and then later again by Hazrat Sa’d (ra). 

His Holiness (aba) said that when Hazrat Khalid (ra) gained victory in Heerah, people sent gifts to congratulate him on his victory, but he sent all these gifts to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) along with the good news of their victory. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said that he would only accept these gifts as Jizyah as that would be the just thing to do. Hazrat Khalid (ra) remained there for some time to ensure the establishment of peace. Upon hearing of his victory, surrounding chieftains from Iraq came forward on their own to establish peace treaties with Hazrat Khalid (ra). 

His Holiness (aba) said that once there was no longer any threat from Iraq and they had come under the Islamic rule, Hazrat Khalid (ra) intended to attack Iran directly. The Persian government was at odds upon the demise of Kisra, as it struggled to select the next emperor. Hazrat Khalid (ra) sent a letter to them telling them that they were at odds, however if they accepted Islam they would be at peace. Either they should accept Islam or accept the payment of Jizyah to ensure the establishment of peace and their security. However, if they refused, then he would bring with him such a fierce army which loved death as much as they loved life. 

Battle of Anbaar

His Holiness (aba) said then there was the Battle of Anbaar or Dhat al-Uyun. The Persian army had encamped near Heerah at Anbaar and Ain al-Tamar which was near Kufa. It was clear that if the Muslims did not take any action, then they could very well lose the area of Heerah which they had only just conquered. Hence, Hazrat Khalid (ra) instructed his army to prepare. Once peace was restored in Heerah, Hazrat Khalid (ra) appointed Hazrat Ka’ka in his stead and set out to help Hazrat Ayaz bin Ghanam (ra) who had been sent by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) from the south to conquer Iraq with the instructions of meeting with Hazrat Khalid (ra). 

His Holiness (aba) said that the people of Anbaar betook themselves to their fortress and had dug a trench outside the fortress. When Hazrat Khalid (ra) arrived, he analysed the situation and then devised a plan. He appointed a thousand archers, who very accurately struck the opponent, specifically striking their eyes. Hence this is also known as the Battle of Dhat al-Uyun (The Battle of Eyes). Then Hazrat Khalid (ra) formed a bridge with camels, filling the trench. Upon seeing this, the leader of Anbaar offered a peace treaty with Hazrat Khalid (ra) and requested safe passage to his own desired destination. His Holiness (aba) commented that this is sufficient to silence those critics of Hazrat Khalid (ra) who say that he was unjust and bent on fighting, whereas here, despite the enemy not accepting offers of peace, when they were finally defeated, he still chose to establish peace. 

Battle of Ain al-Tamar

His Holiness (aba) said then there was the Battle of Ain al-Tamar. After tending to matters related to Anbaar, Hazrat Khalid (ra) set out towards Ain al-Tamar, where a large force of the Persian army had encamped under the leadership of Mehraan bin Bahzaam. There were also various Arab tribes there as well and one of the leaders was Akka. He said to Mahraan that being Arabs, they knew how to fight against Hazrat Khalid (ra) and so the matter should be left to him. Mahraan had heard of Hazrat Khalid’s (ra) great victories and saw this as an excuse, hence telling Akka that he should certainly take the lead in fighting against Hazrat Khalid (ra). Akka set out but Hazrat Khaid (ra) defeated him, upon hearing of which Mahraan fled while others betook themselves to a fortress. They were all imprisoned by Hazrat Khalid (ra) who also took over the armory that had been left behind. 

His Holiness (aba) said that Hazrat Khalid (ra) informed Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) of the victory achieved by the Muslims along with the explanation of why he had left Heerah after a year of staying there to combat the enemy in Anbaar and Ain al-Tamar. 

Battle of Daumatul Jandal

His Holiness (aba) said then there was the Battle of Daumatul Jandal which was near the Syrian city called Medina. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had sent Hazrat Ayaz to Daumah however he faced many difficulties there. When Hazrat Walid bin Uqbah went to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) with the news of victory at Anbaar and Ain al-Tamar, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) instructed him to go and assist Hazrat Ayaz in Daumatul Jandal. Upon arriving, Hazrat Walid (ra) saw the difficult situation Hazrat Ayaz was in, and advised him to seek help from Hazrat Khalid (ra). Hence, after his victory at Ain al-Tamar, Hazrat Khalid (ra) took his army and set out towards Daumatul Jandal. When the people learned of Hazrat Khalid’s (ra) arrival, their leaders were at odds. One of them named Uqaidar said that they should seek to establish peace while others insisted upon fighting. Uqaidar then left and was later captured by the Muslims. When he was brought to Hazrat Khalid (ra) he was imprisoned and then killed.

His Holiness (aba) said that the explanation for why Uqaidar was killed was during the Battle of Tabuk, the Holy Prophet (sa) sent Hazrat Khalid (ra) towards Uqaidar. At the time, Uqaidar sought peace and agreed upon a treaty, however he broke the conditions of that treaty. Hence, it was due to this breach that Hazrat Khalid (ra) later had the opportunity to take him to task for his treacherous ways. 

His Holiness (aba) said that when Hazrat Khalid (ra) arrived in Daumatul Jandal, a fierce battle ensued, however Hazrat Khalid (ra) and his army were ultimately victorious. Many people betook themselves to their fortress, however Hazrat Khalid (ra) ultimately infiltrated that as well and many were taken as prisoners. This victory greatly strengthened the Muslims’ tactical footing, as Daumatul Jandal was located on the way to three prominent places; Iraq, Iran and Syria. 

Battles of Usaid and Khanafis

His Holiness (aba) said that then there was the Battle of Usaid and Khanafis. Hazrat Khalid (ra) was in Daumatul Jandal when Arabs had struck deals with foreigners to avenge the death of Akka. Hence armies from Baghdad set out with the intention of meeting at Usaid and Khanafis. When Hazrat Khalid (ra) returned to Heerah he learned of these activities, he sent Hazrat Ka’ka and Abu Laylah to combat the two armies and later set out himself. He instructed Hazrat Ka’ka to go to Usaid and Abu Laylah to Khanafis and instructed them both to gather the two enemy armies in one place, and if this could not happen then they should attack them. The Muslims ultimately proved victorious in the Battle of Usaid and the surviving enemies fled to Khanafis. However, the Muslims were also ultimately victorious in Khanafis. 

Battle of Musayyakh

His Holiness (aba) said then there was the Battle of Musayyakh, located near Damascus. Hazrat Khalid (ra) and his generals attacked from three different sides and ultimately proved victorious. During this battle, two Muslims were inadvertently killed by the Muslims army, and when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) learned of this he offered their blood money. Although Hazrat Umar (ra) wanted Hazrat Khalid (ra) punished for this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) explained that something like this was absolutely possible when there were Muslims living among the enemy. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) then also vowed to ensure that the upbrining of their children was tended to.

Battles of Sanni and Zumail

His Holiness (aba) said that then there were the incidents of Sanni and Zumail. Rabia, who wished to avenge the death of Akka encamped in Sanni. Hazrat Khalid (ra) learned of this and decided to attack from three sides again which ultimately resulted in the Muslims proving victorious. Thereafter the Muslims went to Ruzab which was conquered without any difficulty. 

Battle of Firaz

His Holiness (aba) said that then there was the Battle of FIraz, which took place between the Mulsims and Romans. This took place during Ramadan due to which Hazrat Khalid (ra) was unable to keep fasts. Hazrat Khalid (ra) set out along the Euphrates River towards the south and as he passed by various areas the residents would agree to treaties of peace. He then reached Firaz. Although this had never initially been the plan, it was God who opened up the paths for such widespread victories for Islam. Hence the Muslims were also ultimately victorious over the Romans in Firaz. 

His Holiness (aba) read out the statements of various historians about the great victories achieved by Hazrat Khalid (ra) all of which were possible due to the leadership and guidance of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). 

His Holiness (aba) said that this brought an end to the accounts of battles during the time of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and that he would continue accounts from the life of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) in future sermons.

Commencement of Jalsa Salana UK

His Holiness (aba) said that next Friday marks the commencement of Jalsa Salana UK and asked everyone to pray that this Jalsa is blessed in every way; those attending may have safe travel and that those performing duty may have the ability to carry out their responsibilities in the best manner. This year Jalsa is being held at its full scale after three years due to which some difficulties may arise. His Holiness (aba) prayed that may Allah remove all such difficulties.  

Summary prepared by The Review of Religions