Who are the Amish?

49The Review of Religions – May 2004 Travelling near Kitchener (Berlin until 1916), Ontario or in the agriculture paradise of Lancaster C o u n t y, Pennsylvania, it is not hard to spot an Amish as their men wear broad-brimmed black hats, plain- cut trousers and the women wear bonnets and ankle length dresses. Their distinctive garb and use of horses visibly distinguishes them from other Americans. On visiting an Amish settlement you will notice a horse and buggy clip-clopping along the road and energ y producing wind-mills dotted in the fields. Among the Amish, the horse and cart are a powerful symbol of their way of life. Origins of the Amish The Amish (an offshoot of the Anabaptist faith) is a Protestant religious group that originated in Switzerland over 300 years ago. The Anabaptist movement had started on January 21, 1525 in Zurich, Switzerland when Protestant pastor Ulrich Zwingli proclaimed that the grace of God and forgiveness of sins were freely available to all by faith alone. In the first half of the 16th century when Europe was embroiled in religious upheaval, a group who called themselves the S w i s s B re t h re n formed a fellowship. They were named Anabaptists (re-baptizers, or Wi e d e rt r a e u f e r). Both Catholics and Protestant churches persecuted them. The reason for their perse- cution was their belief that : • the church should be a group of voluntary adults, baptized during their adulthood instead of during infancy as children are innocent; • there should be a total separation of church and state; • worship should be in the home rather than at church. Moreover they stressed the priesthood of all believers and adult baptism on confession of faith. At that time in Europe adult baptism was considered a crime punishable by death. They believed that the Church had moved away from the principles revealed in the Bible, that people should be loyal to God rather than any government. Who are the Amish? By Zakaria Virk, Canada 50 Who are the Amish? The Review of Religions – May 2004 In the 16th century European society Anabaptism came to stand for the vilest person imaginable. The Church and State authorities tried to force them to recant, those who refused were ridiculed, their properties burned or taken away from them. Many thousands were tortured by having their tongues, hands, feet or even ears cut off , while others were burned at the stake, drowned in rivers, starved in prisons, or lost their heads to the e x e c u t i o n e r’s sword. It is said that between the years 1525 – 1531, about 5000 were killed, with the last known martyr to have died in 1614 in Switzerland. A twelve-hundred-page M a rt y r’s M i rro r first published in Dutch in 1660 and later in German and English records the suffering of their ancestors from 1531 to 1597 in Europe. Virtually every Amish home reserves a special place for M a rt y r’s Mirro r alongside the Bible. As a result of this harsh persecution many of them fled to Holland, Russia, England, Prussia, and some later moved to North America in view of the religious tolerance. This persecution led to the Amish tradition of farming and having their worship services in homes rather than churches. In 1537 Menno Simons (1496- 1561), a Dutch Catholic priest, declared that infant baptism was unscriptural, joined the movement and soon became its leader. His moderate leadership, prolific writings, preaching and tireless o rganisational work did much to unify the Anabaptists who were scattered in northern German states and the Netherlands. Two of his most important books are Foundations of Christian Doctrine (1539) and True Christian Faith (1541). It is from Menno that the descendents of the Swiss Brethren derived the name Mennonite. Today close to two million Mennonites of various races and tongues are spread in more than 75 countries. Many descend from their early beginnings in Switzerland, Germany and Holland. In 1693, a young Swiss Mennonite Bishop Jakob Ammann broke with his brethren and formed a new Christian fellowship. His followers were nicknamed Amish (pro- nounced Ah’mish, also spelled Omish). Amman argued that 51 Who are the Amish? The Review of Religions – May 2004 Christians, in obedience to Christ, should wash each other’s feet at the communion service. To promote doctrinal purity and spiritual discipline, Amman forbade beard trimming and fashionable dress. He administered a strict discipline in his congregations. Appealing to New Testament teaching and the practice of Dutch Anabaptists, Amman advocated shunning excom-municated members. This issue drove the decisive wedge between Amman and other Anabaptist leaders. These theological differences as well as personal feuds eventually erupted into a breach beyond repair. The Mennonites and the Amish have split many times either because of personality conflicts or from a deep concern about the purity of faith. Most Amish groups consider themselves cousins of the Mennonites. Both have been nourished by a common Anabaptist spring, although they have remained organisationally separate to the present day. Both churches still share the same beliefs concerning baptism, non-resistance, and basic Bible doctrines. They d i ffer in matters of dress, t e c h n o l o g y, language, form of worship, and interpretation of the B i b l e . Immigrate to America In 1681, William Penn, a member of the Quakers, received land in America from King Charles II, who owed a debt to his father. The king named this land Penn Sylvania. Around 1700, Penn traveled to Germany and invited the tormented people to Pennsylvania promising them religious freedom. A group of Mennonites immigrated to the United States and established themselves in Germantown, near Philadelphia in 1683. Within six years of their arrival, they issued a protest against slavery, predating Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation by 174 years. The first group of Amish immigrants left Switzerland and Germany on the ship C h a r m i n g N a n c y which arrived in Philadelphia on October 8, 1737. They settled near the town of H a m b u rg (now Reading). Although the Amish were excellent farmers, the English looked down upon them. For instance Benjamin Franklin dismissed them as s t u p i d b o o r s. The first Ohio settlement 52 Who are the Amish? The Review of Religions – May 2004 was established in 1807; it now has the largest church districts and l a rgest Amish population in the United States. Three quarter of all Amish are settled in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Indiana. A larg e majority of them live on the farms. The total Amish population in the US is estimated at 134,000, but only adults are counted as full church members. In 1993, the Amish celebrated their tri-centennial. Extinct in their European homeland, today more than 200,000 of them live in two hundred settlements across North America. These settlements are now prime tourist attractions. Mennonites first arrived in Canada from the US in 1786, after the American Revolution. They acquired land from private owners in the Niagara Peninsula, in Yo r k and Waterloo counties. Such family names as K ropf, Zehr, Ruby, Lichti, Kennel, Roth, Nafzigers, Gingerich, B e n d e r, and Steinmans are quite common to this day in Kitchener- Waterloo cities of Ontario. In the 1 8 7 0 ’s several thousand Dutch Mennonites settled in the Canadian province of Manitoba where a rapidly growing community is established in Winnipeg. There are 1000 congregations in Canada, tied into families of two types: those representing the older tradition called Old Order Mennonite C h u rc h e s, and those representing newer structures called C o n f e re n c e s, i.e. the Conference of Mennonites in Canada. Basic beliefs The primary tenet of the Amish creed is the supremacy of the Bible. Their major doctrines are: • remaining separate from the w o r l d ; • rejection of involvement with the m i l i t a r y ; • autonomy of districts; no central o rg a n i z a t i o n ; • no desire to create converts; • application of the Ordnung which regulates private, public and ceremonial life. Every Amish home has four distinctive books, the Bible, the M a rt y r’s Mirro r, a hymnbook called the Ausbund, and a prayer book which contains the 1632 edition of the Dortecht Confession of Faith. The sacred text of the Amish people is the Bible. They interpret the Bible literally, which 53 Who are the Amish? The Review of Religions – May 2004 explains their lifestyle. In 1659 a Dutch Mennonite Van Braught collected stories of 4011 martyrs from the 16th and 17th century. This volume was not available in German until 1749 when it was printed in Pennsylvania. In 1886, M a rtyrs Mirro r was translated into English. The first partial edition of the Ausbund was printed in 1564 under the title Etliche schone christliche Gesang (some beautiful Christian songs). It consists of 51 hymns composed and sung by Anabaptist prisoners in the dungeons of the Oberhaus castle of Passau on the Danube (Germany) from 1535-40. These verses were borne out of persecution and speak of sorrow and pain in this life as the following extract shows: We wander in the forest dark, With dogs upon our track; And like the silent, captive lamb Men bring us, prisoners, back. They point to us amid the thro n g , And with their taunts offend; And long to let the sharpened ax On heretics descend. There are 11 known European editions and many editions printed in America (latest in the 1990s). As late as 1692 the government of Bern, Switzerland, placed the book on the proscribed list and ordered its confiscation when found. The old Order Amish still regularly sing selections from the A u s b u n d in their worship services. The O rdnung a r e the unwritten rules on which the Amish people base their morals and way of life and has evolved gradually over the decades. For instance it prescribes that a w o m a n ’s hair should be parted in the centre and a man’s hair should be combed with bangs. It also lays down rules for food preferences, types of crops grown, job choices, style of house, and hobbies. It contains prescriptions – you ought to wear a wide brimmed hat – and proscriptions – you should not own a television etc. They have taken no stand for or against smoking. None of the women smoke, and men usually like smoking cigars. Amish do not believe anyone is better just because of his position therefore, they call everyone by his or her first name. The Amish often think of ingenious ways to get around an old practice. For example, freezers are not permitted in homes but are placed in the homes of non-Amish neighbours. 54 Who are the Amish? The Review of Religions – May 2004 The Amish believe that: • The One and only God has revealed Himself as existing eternally as Father, son, and Holy S p i r i t • The Bible is the Word of God, the ultimate authority and New Testament is the fulfillment of the Old Testament. • God has created and continues to sustain all things. • Humankind is sinful, needs atonement through Jesus Christ. • Everyone is free to choose or reject salvation by grace through faith. • The church is the visible expression of those who commit themselves to a life of holiness and love. • Jesus Christ will personally return to judge the world, raise the dead, and usher in the glorious kingdom of God. C h u rch Organisation The Amish church is highly decentralised, each G e m e i n d e o r congregation consisting of 175 members choosing its bishop, p r e a c h e r, and deacon from its membership. The Amish meet every two weeks in the home of a member on Sunday for worship. The service (D i e n e r Ve r s a m m l u n g e n) which lasts for about four hours is conducted in High German. At the service Ausbund is used which contains words but no music. A foot washing ceremony is conducted twice a year, Easter and October, when members bring towels and buckets of water into church to commemorate Jesus’ washing of his disciple’s feet (John 13:14). Pairs of women also wash each o t h e r’s feet. Afterwards they clasp hands and kiss each other as a symbol of love and fellowship. The sermon is delivered by the minister in High German and is often mixed with Pennsylvania Dutch and English. Pennsylvania Dutch (early settlers in Pennsylvania confused Deutsch with Dutch, it has nothing to do with Netherlands) is the language all Amish speak among themselves. The Amish calendar is very simple; there are two great Sundays of communion in spring and fall, with days of fasting that precede them which are high points of religious observance. Apart from that, a service is held every other Sunday. Christmas is celebrated with family 55 Who are the Amish? The Review of Religions – May 2004 dinners and an exchange of gifts, however there is no Christmas tree, no decorations, and no Santa Claus. Good Friday is spent in prayer and fasting followed by Easter. Ascension Day (40 days after Easter) and Pentecost (11th Sunday after Easter) are Amish holidays. Thanksgiving and New Ye a r’s Day are observed with fervour, but Halloween is totally ignored. One of the most important tenets of their faith is n o n – c o n f o r m i t y i . e . separation from the world which means refusal to follow values set by a world they consider evil. In practice this tenet is the reason for their distinctive dress and rejection of most modern amenities such as e l e c t r i c i t y, televisions, tractors, cars and telephones (they cannot own one but can use pay telephone). Similarly they are allowed to ride in motorised vehicles including airplanes but cannot own one. Business partnerships with non- Amish are forbidden. Marriage within the groups is encouraged; even marriage with a young person from a different district with slightly variant O rd n u n g is not approved of. Believers are advised not to swear oaths or to hold public o ffice. They refuse to bear arms, as they think of themselves as ‘defenseless Christians’. Their belief in life after death is very strong as they regard life on earth as temporary, a preparation for eternity. To a devout Amish eternity has more reality than life on earth. The Amish social life exclusively revolves around family, home, and church. The society is org a n i s e d around three basic social units: 1) A s e t t l e m e n t includes a cluster of families living in a common geographical area. 2) The c h u rc h d i s t r i c t is the basic org a n i s a t i o n a l unit above the family in their society including thirty to forty families that live in the immediate locale. 3) The a f f i l i a t i o n is a cluster of Amish congregations, in spiritual fellowship within a settlement. Gelassenheit (Submission to God) The early Anabaptists used the term G e l a s s e n h e i t to convey the idea of submitting to the will of God with a dedicated heart. The rough translation of this German word is submission to a higher authority. To Amish thinking, obedience to the 56 Who are the Amish? The Review of Religions – May 2004 will of God is the cardinal religious value. Gelassenheit is an abstract concept which encompasses many aspects of Amish life. It can be broken down into five units which include: personality, symbols, structure, ritual, and values. The meek spirit of G e l a s s e n h e it unfolds as Amish individuals submit to the will of Almighty God, church elders, parents, community, and the Amish tradition. The goal of G e l a s s e n h e i t is to produce a humble person who discovers fulfillment in the community and in return receives a visible ethnic identity. It stands in sharp contrast to modern day individualism. A favorite Amish saying defines ‘JOY’ as Jesus first, Yourself last, and Others in b e t w e e n. Amish teachers sometimes remind their students that the middle letter of pride is ‘I’. The meaning of G e l a s s e n h e i t i s serving and respecting others, a modest way of acting, talking, dressing, and walking. It forbids the use of force. Therefore, they refuse to serve in the military, file law- suites, hold political office, use courts, serve on juries, or work as police officers. Silence and avoidance are often their means of avoiding conflict. G e l a s s e n h e i t is a social process that recycles the i n d i v i d u a l ’s energies for the advancement of community. D re s s In Amish society, a person’s dress signals Gelassenheit, i.e. submission to the collective will of the society. Whereas a modern dress portrays individual expres- sion, the Amish dress is an expression of group solidarity. By surrendering control over their appearance, they demonstrate that individuals are less important than the group. The form and colour of dress signify sex, age, marital status, church membership, as well as death and mourning. It enables communication without words. Dress regulations have been encoded in the church’s customs. Generally men and boys wear dark suit coats which have no lapels and fasten with hooks and eyes. Trousers are made in the traditional pattern and held up by suspenders, with no fly, no crease, and no belt. Shirts are made of solid coloured fabric like blue, green and orange. Coloured shirts are allowed, but stripes and prints are not. Patterns are not allowed as they are 57 Who are the Amish? The Review of Religions – May 2004 considered fancy. Shoes are black for dress up, but brown for work. Broad brimmed hats made of either straw or black felt are worn outdoors. The width of an Amish hat brim not only signifies his status but also the degree of his orthodoxy. The broader the brim, the more conservative the wearer is. The hair is cut about even with the earlobe, not parted and combed front in bangs. Long untrimmed beards without moustaches are the mark of an adult Amish. Men are clean shaven until they get married, then they wear a beard which is like a wedding ring. Single men over forty also grow a beard. Sideburns without a beard are prohibited. The Amish women make all the clothing for their families, using sewing machines and brown paper patterns used for generations. Amish housewives still use heavy flat irons which are heated on the burners of wood stoves. Little girls up to the age of eight wear a pinafore called a Schlupp Schotzli over their dress. Women wear full skirts made of solid coloured fabric. Purple is their favorite colour, while red is the least favourite due to the fact that red was the colour of the church doors of those who persecuted them in Europe. As a sign of modesty, an apron is always worn and a cape often covers the bodice of the dress. Amish girls and women fasten their dresses with straight pins. Women do not cut or curl their hair, or let it hang loose. They wear it parted in the middle and combed back from the face, then twisted into a bun at the back of the head. When going to church, women put on their k a p p ( p r a y e r cap) with bonnet and a black shawl on the body. The k a p p is white if they are married and a black one if they are single. Amish women do not wear any kind of jewelry, or make up. For Sunday preaching, men wear a M u t z i, a long black frock coat with rounded edges in front and a slit at the bottom in back and a rounded standing collar. Buttons are disallowed because Amish are pacifists and think that buttons are of military origin. Neckties are forbidden. Other than preaching, men wear Wa m u s , a black sack coat with high round neck. Buttoned sweaters are sometime allowed. Black shoes and stockings are worn for outdoors. Amish introduced F r a k t u r art and quilting in America and Canada. 58 Who are the Amish? The Review of Religions – May 2004 Fraktur is the name given to the meaningful symbols and distinctive style of Mennonite art. As they believed that Jesus or God should not be represented, so they express their feelings through God’s creations such as birds, trees and flowers. Women embroider tulip, rose, star and heart motifs on towels, pillowcases, and quilts. P a c i f i s m Most Amish and Mennonites refuse to go to any kind of war. For five hundred years these people have believed that peaceable Christians will go to prison rather than kill a fellow human being. Their leaders have urged returning good for evil and turning the other cheek for the sake of peace. In the USA, Amish have been able to work for two years in approved alternative service projects in lieu of the military service. During World Wa r II, Amish worked in US hospitals, f o r e s t r y, or overseas agricultural development and health projects. Many Amish young prefer the Voluntary Service i.e. working for varying lengths of time without compensation, with room and board provided by the Voluntary Service Centres. During the time of US military draft, many young men chose voluntary service for their two years of alternative service. Despite their stand against war, the Amish are regarded as good citizens. They pay their taxes f a i t h f u l l y, help their neighbours and support community fire and health facilities. There is a strong tradition of social conscience among the Amish. They were the first to protest slavery in the United States. Education The majority of Amish believe in higher education as a good experience for young people although some of the Older Order groups question whether such education leads to greater wisdom and obedience. The Amish believe that wisdom and understanding are more important than knowledge and facts. On average an Amish child knows less about science, t e c h n o l o g y, and the arts but more about soil, animal and plant care and basic skills for carpentry, masonry and food preservation. Amish children are not sent to k i n d e rgarten, because parents want their kids to stay home until they are six. In school, children are never allowed to stand around by 59 Who are the Amish? The Review of Religions – May 2004 themselves, they must be included in the group. Children are expected to work together as a group, not compete as individuals. In 1972 the US Supreme Court ruled that the Amish sect is exempt from state compulsory education laws requiring a child to attend beyond the 8th grade, as such laws violate the Constitutional right to the freedom of religion. They have an old saying, ‘The more educated the m o re mixed up.’ Farming and other Care e r s The Amish have always preferred to be farmers, because of the biblical directive that man should live ‘b y the sweat of his bro w.’ They believe that working the soil not only keeps them close to God, but it helps to keep the family together, and it keeps the temptations of the world at bay. The Amish farmers produce plentiful crops by working long hours and employing innovative methods. In the state of Pennsylvania (USA) generally an Amish has about 40 acres with various crops like alfalfa, corn, tobacco and grains. They use horses to cultivate and harvest crops as well as to bale hay and straw. The farm practices of Mennonites in Ontario were widely copied by others, such as rotation of crops, and bank barns. They strongly believe in sharing their gardens and earnings with others. Amish Church agencies are dedicated to finding ways to improve soils and seeds and farming methods in developing countries. Besides farming many Amish sons go to work in cabinet shops or cheese factories. Owning a bar or a gambling establishment is not approved. The Old Order Amish women sometimes work outside home, doing house cleaning, selling goods at farmer’s markets, or working in factories. Legislated by the U.S. Congress, self employed Amish do not pay taxes because they do not receive Medicare, Social Security benefits, or any type of government assistance or insurance benefits. Their refusal to be ‘yoked with an u n b e l i e v e r’ forces them not to accept any subsidies from the government, like subsidies for milk. Another example of ‘yoke with the u n b e l i e v e r’ is electricity by generator is acceptable but electricity by wire is taboo. All their automatic milking machines, 60 Who are the Amish? The Review of Religions – May 2004 coolers, and lights are operated with diesel generators. If an Amish is disabled or widowed, others will come forward to help with chores and finances. Amish care for their elderly until death. M i s s i o n a ry work The early Anabaptists participated in active missionary work, going everywhere, preaching and teaching. Many Anabaptists died for their faith. Many were viciously persecuted so they sought refuge in the hills, caves and countryside. By 1851 the Amish and Mennonites were spread in seven countries. In 1995 organised fellowships existed in nearly sixty countries around the world. Half of the fellowship is non-white and lives outside of Europe and North America. The Beachy Amish have active mission and service programs in about a dozen countries. The Old Order Amish do not participate in organized missionary work. They tend to believe in ‘missionary by example’. Mennonites in North America sent their first foreign missionaries to India and Turkey in 1898. Most Amish groups are active in relief and service work, and the Mennonite Central Committee distributes millions of dollars in aid to countries ‘in the name of the Christ’. It is estimated that about 20 per cent of Amish youth choose to join a less demanding denomination or leave a l t o g e t h e r, and “go English”. Weddings Among the Amish groups, the wedding practices vary, but certain assumptions are the same: marriage is for life, divorce and remarriage are not considered options, the bride and groom must be at the wedding party along with family and Church community. Marriages are not arranged. The wedding and reception are held at the bride’s home where food is provided for four to five hundred guests. The Old Order Amish weddings mostly take place in November when farm work is less demanding. A four hour service begins at 8.30 am. It includes wedding hymns from the A u s b u n d, a long sermon on marriage illustrated from the Bible, simple vows, testimonies from church leaders, and an extended prayer. There is no 61 Who are the Amish? The Review of Religions – May 2004 exchange of kisses, rings, fashion consultants, or caterers. Photographs are forbidden by the O rd n u n g as it shows pride (H o c h m u t ) in one’s appearance. Following the service food is served. First to eat are the bride and groom. The newly wed couple does not go on honeymoon; instead they visit their extended families receiving wedding gifts. Among the Amish groups, most of the farms and businesses are co- owned by husband and wife. The wife makes all the purchases, bids at auctions, and writes cheques to pay the bills. In the church she is not entitled to any leadership but she may participate in voting. Times are changing and a growing number of congregations now do ordain women to the ministry. Divorce in Amish couples is rare, separation is unknown. Amish couples do not marry for love or romance, but out of respect and need for a partner. Last rites Funeral and burial usually takes place three days after the death of a m e m b e r. During these three days members visit the grieved family to o ffer sympathy and help. A funeral director assists in supplying the c o ffin and the hearse. The body is dressed in white, however, in the case of women she is buried in white shawl and apron. Family and friends gather around the body for a service. There are no eulogies. A hymn is spoken, but not sung. The law requires that the body must be embalmed if it is not buried within 24 hours of the death. No flowers are placed at the grave, only a simple tombstone to mark the spot. After the burial family and friends eat together to help the bereaved return to normal life again. S p i r i t u a l H e a l i n g The Old Order Amish are often portrayed in the press as opposing modern medicine. This is a gross misrepresentation. Most Amish go to doctors, hospitals, and take medicine. They also believe in the fact that healing is a gift from God. ‘The Lord gives and the Lord takes away’. Home remedies do receive a lot of attention, however, rural people do believe that good food, h o n e y, tea, vinegar are as eff e c t i v e as drugs. Some members go to non- medical clinics and others visit mines and springs. Many groups operate health facilities in North 62 Who are the Amish? The Review of Religions – May 2004 America. These health facilities expanded as a result of the military draft. Young men looking for alternative service found work in these health facilities. The Amish have some tried and tested methods for dealing with the emotional illness that can cause physical illness. L o v e – God is love and love is what heals all. This law is first in Amish life. Adversity – the Amish do not buy insurance as they have a sold network of family and friends. Scientists have now concluded that the greatest risk toward heart disease is loneliness. A l m s – The Amish believe that one must give away a portion of his wealth, without boasting and he will be rewarded. A n g e r – Resentment eats a person up like cancer. F o rg i v e others so that you may be forg i v e n . C o n s c i e n c e – a clear conscience is the best pillow. C o n t e n t m e n t – he that is content has enough. The greatest wealth is to live with little. D e p re s s i o n – the best prescription for depression is to count your blessings. E n v y – i t ’s not so much what you eat that makes you sick, but what is eating you. F a m i l y – close-knit families are the rule, grand parents are not placed in nursing homes but kept at home in their cottage on the farm called ‘grossdadi haus’. Fear – there is no fear in love, perfect love casts out f e a r. Happiness – is a healthy outlook on life. Happiness is found by avoiding vanity, pride, anger, malice, lust, greed and fashion. H o l i d a y s – The Amish cherish their h o l i d a y s. Humour – laughing exercises the lungs, heart, and adrenal glands while stimulating the brain to produce endorphins. Laughter relieves tension and fear. T h a n k f u l – it is hard to find a thankful person who is unhappy. To u c h – many people show illness more as a deficiency for aff e c t i o n . The Amish enjoy massages of the feet, scalp, and back. Certain Amish dedicate their careers to the ministry of healing touch C o n c l u s i o n s The Amish people are a fascinating sect of Christianity. Through the centuries they have stuck to their beliefs seemingly uninterested in which direction the world is moving. Some of them have not reaped the benefits of every changing technology. While some 63 Who are the Amish? The Review of Religions – May 2004 of their thinking is a little extreme (i.e. the literal interpretation of the Bible), the sentiment of staying humble and friendly is indeed c o m m e n d a b l e . R e f e rences: • Who are the Amish, C. Meyers, 1976. • The Mennonite Canadians, Joanne Flint 1980 • Amish Folk Medicine, Patrick Quillin, 1995 • The Riddle of Amish Culture, D.B. Kraybill, 1989. • Amish Home, Raymond Bial, 1993. • Living without Electricity, Stephen Scott 1990. • The Gentle People , James Wa r n e r 1982. • Growing up Amish, Richard Ammon, 1989. • Amish Mennonites of Ontario, 150 years, D. Sauder 1972 • Mennonites in Canada 1786-1920, by Frank Epp, 1974 • www.amish.net • www.mennonite.net Advertise your business in The Review of Religions and see sales scale to new heights. Existing adverts can be placed and sponsorship on regular features is available in this longest running worldwide Muslim monthly magazine. 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