The Promised Son3 Comments | February 2011
These were the words spoken by Hadhrat Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad(ra) upon the death of his beloved father, Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad(as) of Qadian, the Promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi. At the time of the Promised Messiah(as)’s passing, his son was only nineteen years old, yet his words were filled with conviction and loyalty of the very highest order. He lived for a further fifty-seven years and during that time his every act and deed was conducted with those words in mind. He, therefore, fulfilled the promise he made to his father and by doing so, Allah’s promise to the Promised Messiah(as), namely that He would grant him a son who would be the ‘Musleh Mau’ud’ – the Promised Reformer – was also magnificently fulfilled. This is evident both by the events surrounding the birth of Hadhrat Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad(ra) and his vast achievements for the cause of Islam.
Christian missionaries had in the 19th century succeeded in influencing many Muslims in India. Furthermore, Hindus were generally intensely opposed to Islam, and tried their utmost to curtail its spread and influence. This state of affairs grieved the Promised Messiah(as) a great deal. He could not bear to see the religion of Islam tarnished and attacked from all quarters, and with no one amongst the Muslims capable or willing to stand up and defend the religion of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(saw). Thus the Promised Messiah(as) himself guided by God Almighty, wrote the masterpiece, Baraheen-e-Ahmadiyya, in which he presented the Holy Qur’an as the perfect Book, and the Holy Prophet Muhammad(saw) as the final Law-Bearing Prophet, who had come with a universal teaching. The publication of this book had huge repercussions. Those opposed to Islam became extremely angry that such a book had been written, and their reactions became increasingly volatile. Their attacks on Islam and the character of the Holy Prophet(saw) increased. So as a means to reflect and to seek God Almighty’s help, the Promised Messiah(as) decided to isolate himself for a period of forty days, during which time he would seek the nearness of God Almighty through constant worship. He travelled to Hoshiarpur, a relatively small city in north-eastern Punjab. There, he spent the next forty days isolated in a room praying and worshipping his beloved God Almighty.
During this period of forty days the Promised Messiah(as) received a great deal of direct communion with God Almighty. Thus, on 20th February 1886 he published a leaflet in which he stated that God Almighty had informed him during his period of solitude, that a child would be born to him who would greatly assist in the service of Islam. The prophecy was lengthy and included 52 separate qualities that would be possessed by the child, who would be known as Musleh Mau’ud – the Promised Reformer. The child would be a direct sign of Allah’s Mercy; he would be handsome and pure; he would be intelligent; he would be blessed with a holy spirit and would be free from all impurity; the son would be the light of Allah; he would heal the many ills of this world through his Messianic qualities; he would be meek of heart; he would convert three into four; he would be the means of procuring the release of those held in bondage and his fame would spread to the ends of the earth. Thereafter he would be raised to his spiritual station in heaven.
This prophecy was so detailed and clear, that were it to be fulfilled then there could be no argument that the Promised Messiah(as) had indeed been the recipient of blessed revelation whilst in Hoshiarpur. No ordinary person could predict that he would bear a son who would become famous the world over, and who would be an international leader and bear all the qualities narrated. Yet the Promised Messiah(as) who lived in the remote town of Qadian, made this prophecy and predicted that the child would be born within a period of nine years. The Promised Messiah(as) was blessed with a baby girl called Ismat; however she passed away in infancy. A son called Bashir was then born, but he too passed away. The opponents of the Promised Messiah(as) did not fail to try and capitalise on these personal losses. They celebrated them and deemed the Promised Messiah(as) to be a liar and a fraud. If he had, God forbid, been a liar or a fraudster then perhaps having witnessed the death of two children so young, the Promised Messiah(as) might have retreated on his earlier claims. Yet he had complete conviction that what was decreed by God Almighty would occur, and he repeatedly reminded those who mocked him that the prophecy gave a period of nine years for the child to be born.
Thereafter, on 12th January 1889 Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad(as) was blessed with a son, named Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad(ra). It was this child who would go on to further fulfil the Qur’anic prophecy; ‘And He will raise him among others of them’, and who would fulfil the prophecy of Musleh Mau’ud. In his person every single one of the qualities vouchsafed by God Almighty to the Promised Messiah(as) were fulfilled, with great magnificence. Certain aspects of his blessed character and a few of his many achievements shall now be discussed.
As a child Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) was unlike most other children. He was very dedicated to prayer, and appreciated the importance of the mission entrusted to his blessed father, from a very young age. Despite being somewhat delicate of health, his thirst for worship and religious knowledge was apparent from childhood. A companion of the Promised Messiah(as) Hadhrat Mufti Muhammad Sadiq(ra), had the good fortune of seeing Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) during his childhood. He said three things characterised him: firstly his goodness, secondly his total honesty in all matters and thirdly his interest in religious matters. He said that he regularly saw him offering prayers at the side of the Promised Messiah(as). He further narrates that on one occasion, when Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) was around ten years old, he saw him praying next to the Promised Messiah(as) in the Aqsa Mosque. He narrates that although he was but a child, he was bowed down and weeping constantly in holy supplication, beseeching God Almighty.
Another companion of the Promised Messiah(as) Hadhrat Sheikh Ghulam Ahmad(ra), narrates that once he decided he would spend the entire night in the worship of God Almighty, at the Mubarak Mosque in Qadian. He said that when he arrived, he saw a young person bowed down in prayer. The emotion of the scene was such that the narrator said that he himself started to pray to God that whatever the person was beseeching, Allah might grant it to him. He continued relating, that he did not know for how long prior to his arrival the person had been bowed down in prayer, but that whilst he was there this scene continued for a long time. Finally, when he arose the narrator saw that it was Hadhrat Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad(ra). He said that he immediately went to meet him. Hadhrat Sheikh Ghulam Ahmad inquired: “Tonight what have you taken from Allah?” Upon this Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) replied, “I have only asked Allah to grant me the ability to see Islam as a living religion.” This reply clearly illustrates how even from childhood Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) shared the anxiety of the Promised Messiah(as) over the state of Islam, the need for reformation of Muslims and the importance of reinstating the true teachings of Islam. He had been bowed in prayer and had not requested any personal favour from his Lord, only that the pure Islam be revived in front of his own eyes.
On 26th May 1908 the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama‘at (community) faced the greatest trial ever upon the passing of its Founder, Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad(as), the Promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi. It was narrated at the outset how Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) reacted to this devastating event. Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) stood by the body of his father and declared that if the entire world was to leave him, then no matter; he would continue to stand alone and face all persecution and hatred on behalf of the mission of the Promised Messiah(as).
Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) had no personal ambition or desire to lead the Jama‘at. His only interest was for the future success of the Promised Messiah(as)’s mission. And thus on 27th May 1908, Hadhrat Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad(ra) became the first person to take the ‘Bai’at’- the pledge of allegiance, at the hands of the first Khalifa of the Promised Messiah(as), Hadhrat Hakim Maulawi Nur-ud-Din(ra), Khalifatul Masih I. Throughout the six year Khilafat of Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih I(ra), Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) showed total obedience, respect and loyalty to both the Khalifa and the Jama‘at. In worldly organisations upon the death of a Founder it is often the case that their heirs expect recognition or reward; to be treated as royalty. But never was there even the slightest overture by Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra), or indeed any of the immediate family of the Promised Messiah(as). This in itself was a worthy testament to the way that the Promised Messiah(as) and his noble wife, Hadhrat Amma Jaan(ra), had brought up their children.
On the other hand, Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih I(ra) had great love for and indeed expectations of Hadhrat Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad(ra). He himself continued to verse Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) in the intricacies and arguments found within the Holy Qur’an. During this period the Jama‘at faced serious difficulties when certain members began agitating as to whether the need for Khilafat. This particular issue would raise its head once again upon the demise of Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih I(ra). Nonetheless, at that time Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) continued to give his total support to Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih I(ra) and made it abundantly clear that he and members of his family would always stand by the institution of Khilafat, and would not tolerate any form of deviance in this regard.
The demise of Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih I(ra) occurred on 13 March, 1914. Upon his demise the mantle of Khilafat-e-Ahmadiyya was to pass on to Hadhrat Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad(ra), who was elected the following day on 14 March. It was at this point, at the very youthful age of twenty five, that the life of Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) changed forever. For more than half a century, he led the Jama‘at (community) through some of the most challenging and turbulent times it had ever faced; times of genuine crisis were to emerge, and yet at each juncture Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) used his infinite wisdom to guide the community towards perpetual success.
The propagation of Islam and the message of the Promised Messiah(as) was at the forefront of every decision and every act of Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra). Thus, just a few weeks after his election he called a consultation meeting of Jama‘at officials (Majlis-e-Shura), in which he outlined his vision. He said:
“I would like to see the truth of Ahmadiyyat shine far and wide in the world.”
His direction was clear; he wanted the Community to spread throughout different countries. His vision was based on two clear principles. First and foremost, that Islam was a universal religion and thus the true Islam had to be conveyed to the entire world. It was not merely his duty to convey it to the people of India or the sub-continent, but in fact to each and every country, city, town and village. Secondly, he could foresee that the Community was to face difficulties and growing opposition. Notwithstanding his utter belief that God Almighty would protect His message and the people chosen to deliver it in the latter days, it was very important for the Community to be established in other countries so that among other reasons, if the persecution of the Community ever intensified, there would be Ahmadis in other countries to support and help those in need. By spreading far and wide, he knew it would be impossible for any single government to destroy the Ahmadiyya Muslim community. Thus, he encouraged Ahmadis to learn different languages and set up a dedicated office, Nazarat Da‘wat-o-Tabligh, for the propagation of Islam, in 1919. Though the Community at that time was quite weak financially, whatever means it did have at its disposal was blessed greatly by God Almighty. Such limited means sufficed to send missionaries to different countries and to ultimately build mosques and mission houses, from where God’s message could be propagated and celebrated. Consequently, the Community became established in nearly fifty new countries during the Khilafat of Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra). These countries were spread across the world and so the part of the prophecy of Musleh Mau’ud(ra) relating to him becoming famous worldwide, was magnificently fulfilled.
Throughout Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra)’s Khilafat, the Community continued to develop under his guidance. New structures and means of administration were developed and the Jama‘at was sub-divided into separate auxiliary organisations based on age and gender. One of his truly great schemes was that of Tehrik-e-Jadid, set up in 1934 as a means to enable the spread of the Community far and wide. Initially, it was developed as a three-year scheme but it was then extended gradually until 1953, when Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) announced that it would be a permanent feature of the Community. Similarly, the institution of Waqf-e-Jadid was set up in 1957 as a means to promote missionary and reformatory activities in every village, town and city of India and Pakistan. This scheme too was extremely blessed and became a permanent part of the Jama‘at’s administration.
The importance of Tabligh and Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra)’s vision became apparent both during and after his Khilafat. During his Khilafat the Jama‘at faced many trials, not least during the partition of India when the vast majority of Ahmadis left Qadian and faced great persecution. Many Ahmadis were killed at that time. Furthermore, in 1953 riots erupted across Pakistan in opposition to the Jama‘at. Again many Ahmadis were killed, others were attacked or boycotted. These were extremely grave and trying times. Through Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra)’s leadership and Allah’s Divine grace, the Jama‘at emerged from each of these events stronger than before. The ultimate importance of the establishment of foreign missions became apparent many years after Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra)’s demise. In 1984, the fourth Khalifa, Hadhrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad(ru), had to migrate from Pakistan to England due to the cruel and discriminatory regime of General Zia-ul-Haq. Through God Almighty’s Grace, the Ahmadiyya community in the UK had long been established and because of this they were able to assist Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih IV(ru) immediately. Offices were set up in London so that the future progress of the Communiy would not be hindered.
The UK Community was particularly blessed in 1924, as Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) chose the country for his first foreign tour as Khalifatul Masih. He had been invited to address the ‘Conference of Living Religions’ that was to be held at Wembley, in September 1924. Thus along with twelve companions, Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) travelled to London, breaking his journey at Damascus, Palestine and Egypt. He also passed through Italy and France. His arrival in the UK was greeted with widespread media coverage and warmth from the general public. On 23rd September 1924, Hadhrat Chaudhry Muhammad Zafarulla Khan(ra) read out Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra)’s paper which was later published as a book entitled, Ahmadiyyat The True Islam. The paper was designed to highlight the true Islamic teachings and purpose of the advent of the Promised Messiah(as). His lecture was greatly received, and again coverage was given in the media. The Manchester Guardian wrote:
‘The sensation of the conference so far was an appearance this afternoon of a new sect of Islam, which claims to have been founded 34 years ago by the Messiah of Biblical and other prophecy and to have an express divine command to lead mankind to God through Islam. A white-turbaned, black-bearded Indian of a radiant, pleasing countenance, who described himself as his Holiness the Khilafat Al Messiah Alhaj, the Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad – or for short his Holiness Khalifatul Masih – presented this bold claim in a paper entitled ‘The Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam’. He did not read his paper himself but said a few sentences in excellent English… He had, he added, a million followers all over the world. He was accompanied on the platform by a few supporters who wore green turbans, and another, who wore a red fez, read his paper with expert efficiency… The paper, it must be added, was followed with much more applause than any of its predecessors.’
Dr Walter Walsh who had organised the conference and was a famous clergyman, commented after hearing Hudhur(ra)’s address, that the speech had caused him to conclude that Islam certainly was a living and vibrant religion.
During that tour of 1924, Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) also laid the foundation stone of the first Mosque in the United Kingdom, which was to be called ‘Masjid Fazl’ – ‘the Mosque of Blessings’, the first Mosque ever built in London. This mosque would go on to play a major role in the history of the Jama‘at. Following the migration of Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih IV(ru) in 1984, it became the mosque of the Khalifa of the time, and so performed a pivotal role as the centre of the worldwide community. This mosque is also commonly known as ‘The London Mosque’.
Despite having very little formal education, Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) was well versed in all matters. His capacity for knowledge was seemingly limitless. The root of all his knowledge was his utter love for the Holy Qur’an. His knowledge of each and every verse was encyclopaedic, and this knowledge he did not keep to himself, but constantly endeavoured to spread far and wide. Thus, throughout his life he continually delivered sermons and lectures on the Holy Qur’an. His commentaries Tafsir-e-Saghir and Tafsir-e-Kabir, were a service not just for the members of the community but for the whole of mankind. Part of the prophecy concerning his birth stated that the Promised Son would be sent as a means to manifest the true status of the Qur’an to others, and most certainly he fulfilled that role to the letter. Even his opponents were forced to accept his mastery of the Qur’an. Whilst addressing a crowd of his own supporters one well known opponent and local Muslim leader, Maulawi Zafar Ali Khan said:
‘Listen carefully, you and your followers will never be able to compete with Mirza Mahmud Ahmad. Mirza Mahmud has the Qur’an and he has got knowledge of it. What have you got?’1
Academics and media outlets also felt compelled to praise Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra)’s commentaries. One Dutch Newspaper Dewaagsohel wrote that in the introduction given by Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud of the Holy Qur’an, he had presented the teachings of the Qur’an as ‘superior to the teachings of the Bible and Vedas.’
The love Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) had for the Holy Qur’an was not only manifest in his speeches and written works. Indeed, it was displayed at all times both in his public and private lives. His nephew and son-in-law, the late Sahibzada M. M. Ahmad, narrated an incident from his own childhood, when he said Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) had said to him and other children who were gathered that:
“The Holy Qur’an is like an ocean of wisdom. You should inculcate the habit to read it seriously, ponder over its meanings and come out with gems of wisdom.”
Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud’s(ra) love for the Holy Qur’an was mirrored by his love for the Holy Prophet Muhammad(saw). Any abuse or mocking of the Holy Prophet(saw) caused him immense grief. He felt particular anguish that the majority of non-Ahmadi Muslims claimed that by believing in the Promised Messiah(as), Ahmadi Muslims had somehow insulted the Holy Prophet(saw). In a book Haqeeqat-ul-Nabuwwat he wrote during the first year of his Khilafat, he gave expression to his distress:
‘Ignorant men blame us that by believing in the Promised Messiah(as) as a Prophet we insulted the Holy Prophet of Islam(saw). What do they know about the state of one’s heart? How could they fathom the great love, deep affection and high reverence we have for the Holy Prophet(saw)?
‘And what do they understand of how the love for the Holy Prophet(saw) has penetrated my heart? He is my life, my heart, my desire. In my bondage to him my honour and his shoe-bearing is more valuable to me than the Imperial Throne. The control of Seven Continents is nothing in comparison to the honour of sweeping his home. He is the beloved of the Lord.’
Despite the many clear signs that he was the Musleh Mau’ud, Hadhrat Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad(ra) repeatedly refused to make the claim of Musleh Mau’ud, until he was directed by God Almighty. Members of the Jama‘at were keen for him to confirm it himself as such, as it seemed clear that he was the fulfilment of the grand prophecy. Yet, showing once again that he had no ego or self-ambition he chose not to make any announcement until 1944. He was then informed by God Almighty that he was the true fulfilment of the prophecy, and that he should inform the world. Thus Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) travelled to Hoshiarpur where the Promised Messiah(as) had received the glad tidings of his birth, and proclaimed in public that he was the fulfilment of that prophecy. Thereafter, he travelled to other parts of India and publicly proclaimed his status. By doing so he was not in any way trying to exaggerate or highlight his own status but was merely highlighting the truth of the Promised Messiah(as), and the Majesty of God Almighty. Later that year at the Jalsa Salana (Annual convention) in Qadian, he elaborated this point:
“Please do remember that I am not laying claim to any nobility for myself. I am only a Sign of the Transcendent Power of God, the Exalted; and for the purpose of establishing the grandeur of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(saw) God the Exalted has designated me as the instrument. My claim neither extends beyond this, nor would I be glad to be associated with any other claim.”2
This article has focused very much on the public aspect of Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra)’s life. However, it should be highlighted that despite his vast responsibilities he never once neglected his personal responsibilities. To give but one example, Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) was greatly loved by his mother, Hadhrat Nusrat Jehan Begum(ra) (affectionately known by her family and the community as ‘Amma Jaan’). This love was wholly reciprocated. After the demise of the Promised Messiah(as), Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) took full responsibility for the care of his beloved mother. He catered to her every need. Although he was extremely busy, he made it part of his daily routine that he would go and spend some time with his mother. This was often after Maghrib prayer in the evenings. Furthermore,when he was away on travel he would normally take Hadhrat Amma Jan(ra) with him.
Through God’s Grace Hadhrat Amma Jaan(ra) lived a long and blessed life. When she passed away on 20th April 1952, it was the desire of Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) for her to be buried in Qadian next to the Promised Messiah(as). However, conditions were difficult as the wounds of partition were still raw. Nevertheless, Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) instructed the Jama‘at to make efforts for the repatriation of her body back to Qadian. Contact was duly made with the Indian High Commission and they agreed to treat this as a special case. They agreed that the body of Hadhrat Amma Jaan(ra) could be taken back to Qadian and escorted by a maximum of twenty Ahmadis. When this news was given to Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra), he immediately refused the offer and said that the status of Hadhrat Amma Jaan(ra) was such that a minimum of 10,000 Ahmadis were needed to escort her body back to Qadian, and thus he could not accept such an offer. This showed not only the love but also the deep respect that Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) had for his beloved mother.
Only a glimpse has been given into the life of Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra). Indeed, it is not possible to mention all the achievements of Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) in this limited space. His services to the Muslim Ummah, for example, through the foundation and subsequent Presidency of the All India Kashmir Committee in 1931, set up to safeguard the basic human rights of Muslims in Kashmir who faced persecution, are worthy of mention. Indeed, even organisations that were opposed to the Jama‘at, could not help but be impressed by his service. Regarding his role in Kashmir the newspaper ‘Siasat’ wrote:
‘At the time when the condition of Kashmir was critical, those who chose Hadhrat Mirza Sahib despite doctrinal differences made a perfect choice. Had they not chosen Mirza Sahib this movement would have ended in utter failure and would have resulted in a major loss for the Muslim Ummah.’3
It was Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) who sent messages to Muhammad Ali Jinnah to return from London, and to strive for the creation of an independent Muslim State. It is a tragedy of epic proportions that in Pakistan the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama‘at has a long history of being subject to the utmost cruelty and hatred. The vast majority of the public are not aware that were it not for the efforts of Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra), Pakistan might never have existed, and thus Muslims would have continued to live in oppression in an all-inclusive Indian State. During such periods of crisis Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) often did not sleep for nights on end. He would devote himself to his work and to his prayers for the sake of the nation.
The grand prophecy of the Promised Messiah(as) relating to the birth of a Promised Son, was fulfilled magnificently by Hadhrat Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad(ra). Every single quality stipulated was fulfilled to the letter, indeed many of the qualities were fulfilled in many different guises.
In March 1954, Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) was attacked during the ‘Asr prayer at the Mubarak Mosque. A non-Ahmadi had managed to stand in the front line of worshippers, and during the prayer he suddenly advanced towards Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) and drove the blade of a long, sharp knife into his neck with murderous intent. Although through God’s Grace Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) survived, this incident caused serious injury to him, and indeed his health was effected. Thereafter, his physical condition continued to deteriorate over a number of years. This period of decline ended on 8th November 1965, when he breathed his last. His death caused shockwaves amongst the members of the community. Many Ahmadis could never remember a time when he was not there to lead them. Every member of the Jama‘at was consumed with grief. Indeed, many non-Ahmadis also felt compelled to express their sorrow. Through Allah’s grace the Jama‘at recovered from this devastating loss following the election of the Third Successor to the Promised Messiah(as), Hadhrat Hafiz Mirza Nasir Ahmad(ru). The Jama‘at would by the Grace of God continue to go from strength to strength.
The death of Hadhrat Musleh Mau’ud(ra) meant that the world had lost one of its greatest servants. Yet amongst the grief there remained a spirit of gratitude to God Almighty for blessing the Jama‘at with a person who had fulfilled all his responsibilities in such a glorious manner. Truly, he was the Promised Reformer both in spirit and deed. Truly, he was an embodiment of Allah’s help for the mission of the Promised Messiah(as).
May Allah bless him eternally. Ameen.
1 Aik Khaufnak Saazish by Mazhar Ali Azhar, p.196
2 Speech by Hadhrat Al Musleh al-Mau’ud(ra) delivered on 28 December, 1944 at Qadian, pp. 66-68
3 Tahrikh-e-Ahmadiyyat, p.113, May 18, 1933