Inquisition – Intellectual Terrorism

21The Review of Religions – March 2005 The Inquisition was a religiouscourt established during the Middle Ages in Europe by the Catholic Church to suppress heresies threatening the faith. Its primary objective was to detect and identify deviants from the faith, to secure their return to the Catholic Church and to punish those who refused to abandon their erroneous beliefs. The Spanish Inquisition that lasted from 1478 to 1834 was one of the saddest episodes in the history of human thought, and the darkest chapter in the record of Jewish and Muslim history in Spain. This led to the decline of Spain from the high status accorded to her as an imperial p o w e r. Heresies (Gk. – school of belief) were a problem for the church from the very beginning. I n i t i a l l y, heresies were sup- pressed as they arose. In the early centuries of Christianity, there were the heresies of Arius and the Manicheans; in the Middle Ages, there were the Cathari, and Waldenses; and l a t e r, there were the Hussites, Lutherans, and Calvinists. During the Middle Ages a permanent structure was established to deal with this growing problem. Beginning in the 12th century, Pope Gregory IX published a decree that called for life imprisonment with penance for the heretic who confessed, or repented. Capital punishment was for those who persisted in their heresy. The secular authorities would carry out all executions, but Pope Gregory relieved his clergy of this onerous task and made it the duty of the Dominican Order. The following is a historical account of the development and activity of the Inquisition in Europe. It traces the role of the Medieval Church within the control and decision making.Intellectual Terrorism? By Zakaria Virk – Kingston, Canada 22 The Review of Religions – March 2005 INQUISITION – INTELLECTUAL TERRORISM? Medieval Inquisition The Medieval Inquisition never existed as a distinct off i c e ; h o w e v e r, individual Inquisitors were mandated in 1231 by the Pope to combat heresy. Pope Innocent III urged secular rulers to proceed against the Cathari movement in Southern France, calling it high treason against God warranting death. Since Roman times, heretics had been executed as traitors once handed over to secular authority. Torture was not used if they could persuade the heretic to repent. For instance, Bernard Gui, a famous Inquisitor working in Toulouse (France) executed 42 people out of 700 guilty heretics while he was in o ffice for 15 years. Roman Inquisition The Roman Inquisition began when Pope Paul III established the Holy Office on July 5, 1542 as the final court of appeal in the trials of heresy. It was the most benign of three types of Inquisitions detailed in this article. The chief target, of course, was the heresy of Protestantism. In Italy, nearly forty percent of all trials seem to have dealt with magic. In reaction to the Spanish Inquisition, the Roman Inquisition was tightly controlled under the administration of Francisco Pena. Among Pena’s subjects of Inquisition were Giordano Bruno (1548-1600), and Galileo Galilei (1564-1642). Bruno was kept in a dark dungeon for eight years and then taken out to a blazing market place in Rome and roasted to death for being ‘an atheist, an infidel and a heretic’. He thought of the Bible as a book that only the ignorant could take literally. He spoke of an expanding universe, a concept that is now accepted as scientific truth. Galileo, on the other hand, died under house arrest. Galileo was a lecturer at the University of Padua for 18 years. During his scientific studies and experi- ments, he discredited many Christian beliefs that had long been regarded as Scriptural truths. By using a telescope to observe heavenly bodies, he discovered that the Earth revolved around the Sun and was 23The Review of Religions – March 2005 INQUISITION – INTELLECTUAL TERRORISM? not the centre of the universe as people had been led to believe. His claims in The Starry Messenger of 1610, shook the Church and his enemies decided to ask him how a moving earth could be reconciled with the statement that God ‘fixed the earth upon its foundations, not to be removed forever’. (Ps 104:5), or with the statement that ‘the sun rises and the sun goes down: then it presses on to the place where it rises.’ (Ecclesiastes 1:5) Galileo wrote a letter to church authorities presenting his views on the relation between the Bible and science. The clergy reminded him in no uncertain terms that no one is allowed to interpret Scriptures except the Fathers of the Church. Upon arriving in Rome in 1615, he decided to present his conclusive proofs of a Sun-centred system to Pope Paul V. He was ordered to appear before Cardinal Bellarmine, and in March 1616, his book D e revolutionibus orbium coe- lestium, was placed on the list of forbidden books. GLOSSARY Moors: Around 46 BC the Roman army entered West Africa where they encountered black Africans whom they called Maures from the Greek adjective mauros, meaning dark or black. Traditionally, the Moors were from modern Morocco and Mauritania. They became converts to Islam in the 7th century and have since been mistakenly identified as Arabs. Morisco (Spanish “Moor-like”) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. From the late 1400’s to the early 1600s Moors (Spanish Muslims) were forced to convert to Catholicism. Mudejares: derived from Arabic al- Muta-akh-khar, person allowed to remain. Prior to their forced conversion, the Moriscos were known as Mudejars, and were allowed to practise Islam among Christians with certain restrictions. M o z a r a b: Christians who lived under Muslim rule. C o n v e r s o s: New Christians who were Moors previously. Marranos: a baptized Jew who in public behaved like a Christian but inwardly considered himself a Jew. Marranos, the Spanish word for pigs, was the term given by Catholics to these New Christians. 24 The Review of Religions – March 2005 INQUISITION – INTELLECTUAL TERRORISM? After being tried several times, in June 1632, he was led to the hall of the Dominican Convent and his sentence was read to him before a full assembly. Te n cardinals signed the document. The prison sentence was never imposed, though he remained under house arrest until his death in 1642. Nearly a century after his death, the church authorities granted permission in 1737 for the erection of a monument over his tomb. It was not until 1835 that his books were taken off the Index. Index of forbidden books In 1405, Pope Innocent I published a list of forbidden books, and at the end of that century a decree was issued that has been called the first Index of Forbidden Books. It listed the genuine books of the Bible, the apocryphal books (those not considered authentic, but not harmful either), and heretical (harmful) books. Henceforth, Popes and Councils periodically published lists of forbidden books. For many books, permission from Church author- ities is still required. Freedom of thought and written and oral expression is a relatively recent development. The idea that anyone could think and say or write what he wanted was considered abnormal just a hundred years ago. The Spanish Inquisition When Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand united Spain in 1479, they were paranoid in their fear of revolt. When the queen’s confessor, Tomas de Torquemada (1420-1498), of Jewish origin himself, whispered into her ears that Jewish converts were secretly practising their Hebrew faith and corrupting good Christians, Isabella was horrified and frightened. She asked Pope Sixtus IV for permission to establish the Inquisition in Spain, and this was granted imme- diately. Up until 1480, Spain had been one of the least affected by Inquisitions. The stimulating influence of Muslims and Jews had helped it to stay culturally active and intellectually creative. 25The Review of Religions – March 2005 INQUISITION – INTELLECTUAL TERRORISM? For centuries Spain had been multi-cultural, multi-ethnic, and there was a mixture of races and creeds to be found in no other land. The Spanish Inquisition was a court of inquiry instituted by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in 1480 to enforce strict religious standards for all Catholics in Spain, especially the suspected New Christians. The court was instructed not to conduct its work among professing Jews. It is estimated that at the time the Inquisition started, nearly half of all Jews had converted to Christianity. While they attended churches r e g u l a r l y, at home they lit Sabbath candles, abstained from eating pork and observed Jewish holidays. As for Muslims, originally they were allowed to freely exercise their religion. Nevertheless, in 1501 the Spanish sovereigns issued a decree ordering all Muslims to leave Castile and Granada, except those who were willing to embrace Christianity. Though most of the Muslim converts received baptism, many of them adulterated their Christian rites with Muslim practices, even secretly apostacised. The Inquisition began in Seville, and the cruelty and terror for which it is known began i m m e d i a t e l y. The guilty often had their hands chopped off before they were burnt alive. Thousands of Jews fled Seville, their property confiscated by the Crown through this ploy. Soon the royal coffers were swelling with the loot of the Jewish victims. The Vatican issued directions that all judges of the court must be at least 40 years of age, of good reputation, noted for virtue and wisdom, masters of theology and must follow all ecclesiastical rules and regu- lations. In 1483, Pope Sixtus IV bestowed on the Dominican monk, Tomas Torquemando, the office of the Grand Inquisitor in Spain. This centralised authority of Inquisition was characteristic of the Spanish Inquisition. A network of prisons across the land was set up. Informers were 26 The Review of Religions – March 2005 INQUISITION – INTELLECTUAL TERRORISM? encouraged to turn in neighbours and family as a means of self- preservation. Torture was used as a tool for extracting confessions. Punishments ranged from fines, confiscation of property, and life imprisonment to burning at the stake. Because of To r q u e m a n d o ‘ s superior organisational skills, there were 19 courts in operation by 1538. Some estimates suggest that nearly 8000 Jews were burnt alive as well as a small number of Moriscos (Muslim converts) during the fifteen years To m a s Torquemada was Grand I n q u i s i t o r. Organisation of Inquisition The Inquisition in Spain was deeply centralised. The Grand I n q u i s i t o r, who was nominated by the King and confirmed by the Pope, headed it. He delegated powers to other persons suitable for the job and received appeals from the Spanish courts. A Supreme Tribunal consisting of five members assisted him in his work. It heard all appeals and decided on disputed questions. The independent status enabled the Tribunal to hoard wealth through property confiscations, and rendered itself a force to be reckoned with in the political a ffairs of the country. With so much authority vested in this Tribunal, the Spanish Inquisition soon became a state within a state. The Inquisitors paid no taxes and gave no account of their confiscations. They could bear arms and could prosecute their critics under the c h a rge of heresy. In short it soon evolved into a political institution. All Inquisitors were appointed by the King, and worked to enrich the royal t r e a s u r y. Despite all this, it remained fundamentally a Church tribunal sanctioned by the Vatican. Popes always admitted appeals from the Inquisition, called in trials at any stage, even deposed Grand Inquisitors. Therefore the church must share the responsibility for proceedings of the tribunal, whose actions were marked by cruelty and s a v a g e r y. They have left ugly stains on the pages of history. 27The Review of Religions – March 2005 INQUISITION – INTELLECTUAL TERRORISM? The 15 Spanish Tibunals were situated in Barcelona, Cordoba, Cuenca, Granada, Llerena, Logrono, Madrid, Murcia, Santiago, Seville, To l e d o , Valencia, Valladolid and Saragossa. Of these, the ones in Madrid, Seville and Toledo were more active than the others due to large numbers of New Christians living nearby. The Inquisition Tribunal In less than ten years, the Inquisition had become an established institution in many European countries. By the end of the 13th century the Inquisition in each region had a bureaucracy to help in this function. The judge or Inquisitor could bring a case against anyone. The accuser had to testify against himself and had no right to question the accuser (usually a member of the clerg y ) . In any town where a Tr i b u n a l was established it was customary to publish an Edict of Grace, inviting heretics to come forward and confess their transgressions, on the under- standing that they would receive merciful treatment. A Term of Grace – a time limit of 30 to 40 days – was assigned for this purpose. Once this period expired, guilty persons were liable to be proceeded against with the full rigour of the Inquisition. An Edict of Faith was periodically issued summoning all the faithful to report to the authorities any person whom they knew or imagined to be guilty of heretical offences. It was acceptable to take testimony from criminals, persons of ill repute, even heretics. Jealous relatives informed on each other, servants on their masters, students on their teachers. The Confidants were the off i c i a l spies who peeked into windows, listened to gossip and questioned servants. They were particularly active on Friday evenings and on Saturdays, the day of the Jewish Sabbath. In one instance, a woman was turned over to the Inquisition when she set a white cloth on her dinner table on a Friday evening. The accused had no right to a lawyer. The sentences handed to the guilty could not be appealed against. Inquisitors sometimes questioned the entire village in their jurisdiction. The accused was given a summary of the charges he was facing, and made to take an oath to tell the truth. To get the co-operation of the accused, various methods including torture were employed. The law decreed that heretics forfeited all of their property the day they wavered in faith. Wealth willed to children and grand- children was confiscated. Even people long dead were brought to trial in absentia. If they found their graves, they were opened and the remains burned. In Carcassonne, France, parades were held by a group of people each carrying the decomposed body of one or more burned heretics. A person who had died several decades ago could be judged heretical, and his property taken from his heirs. Punishment ranged from visits to churches, pilgrimages, wearing the cross of infamy in public or even burning at the stake. These punishments were conducted in public ceremonies called autos- da-fe which lasted for a whole d a y. The guilty were often flogged, or some had their hands chopped off before they were burnt, alive in many instances. The Inquisition Procedure In the early period of the Inquisition, the Inquisitors rode through the countryside in search of heretics. Soon they were empowered to summon suspects from their homes to such places that were considered safe. Gradually Inquisition Centres were established. The Inquisitor could bring a lawsuit against any person who might even vaguely be subject to public rumour. The accused was kept in the dark as to the identity of the witnesses for the prosecution. Blood relationship did not excuse a person from testifying. The accused were denied the services of court clerks and lawyers, and there was no appeal process. 28 INQUISITION – INTELLECTUAL TERRORISM? The Review of Religions – March 2005 Anyone suspected of heresy over the age of fourteen was tortured. Without any regard for the sex of the heretic, the victim was stripped, and usually given a small covering around the loins. For instance a girl, who was thirteen and survived the torture, was subjected to one hundred lashes. Old men and women whether they were 60, 70 or 80 were tortured or burned alive. Pregnancy offered no immunity e i t h e r, except that she was tortured in a sitting position. During the entire time of torture the secretary of the Inquisition stood by, recording every cruel act and every shriek of agony. Some have estimated that between 1480 and 1808 nearly 32,000 persons were burned in Spain. The French historian Langlois has reported that twelve hundred conversos, and relapse heretics were present at the Inquisition session in Toledo in 1487. Torquemada, the inquisi- tor-general of Spain, sentenced around 2000 heretics in twelve years. Execution by burning Execution by burning had been legal for crimes of heresy, treason or the practice of witchcraft. The form of execution in which the con- demned was bound to a large stake and burned was called autos-da-fe. Many of the early Christian martyrs died in this w a y. In 1184, the Synod of Verona legislated that burning was to be the official punishment for heresy. Witch trials became very popular in Scotland, Spain, England, Austria and Germany during the 14th and 15th centuries. It is estimated that up to 4 million convicted witches and heretics were burned at the stake during this time. Among the best-known convicted heretics were Jan Hus (1415), Joan of Arc (1431) and Giordano Bruno (1600). Auto de fe In Spanish auto-da-fe means ‘act of the faith’. It was the ritual public execution by fire or humiliation of heretics and apostates that took place when the Spanish Inquisition released 29 INQUISITION – INTELLECTUAL TERRORISM? The Review of Religions – March 2005 the condemned to secular rule. Some of the prisoners were burned alive, but if they submitted to the church, they would be strangled at the stake before the fires were lit. The a u t o – d a – f e was staged like a theatrical presentation. Dignitaries dressed in colourful uniforms were prominently seated, and Church o fficials wore their finest v estments. When all was ready a procession was formed. At its head flew the large banner of the Inquisition. Behind it marched the Inquisition officials, next came the prisoners, dressed in unique costumes. They wore l a rge vests upon which were drawn designs and phrases indicating the crime: ‘This person has Judaised.’ A cone shaped hat sat on their heads, and each carried a tall yellow candle. The first auto-da-fe in Seville took place in February 1481 when six people were burned at the stake in front of a large crowd of nobles, clergy and citizens. By coincidence 1481 marked the beginning of a terrible plague that lasted until 1488 in which many died, and some saw the plague as a punishment. The last a u t o – d a – f e execution in Spain was a school teacher, Cayetano Ripoll on July 26, 1826 whose trial lasted for two years. Against scientific inquiry The Inquisition offends modern ideals of justice and spiritual freedom besides contradicting the teachings of Church Fathers such as St Bernard, who said “Faith must be the result of conviction and should not be imposed by force.” The Inquisition often denied elementary justice to the defendant, it showed hostility to the spirit of scientific inquiry (Galileo) and it permitted torture and the death penalty. It has to stand as a symbol of cruelty, intellectual terrorism and reli- gious intolerance. However, one ought to remember that penalties inflicted by the Inquisition were those in current use in their day. For instance, counterfeiters were burned alive, those giving false weights and measures were s c o u rged, burglars were hanged, and thieves were put to death. Still more revolting was the 30 INQUISITION – INTELLECTUAL TERRORISM? The Review of Religions – March 2005 torture on the wheel, on which the victim was left with broken bones and limbs to die a lingering death. Treatment of Jews and M u s l i m s At the Council of Vienna in 1311 , Pope Clement V issued directions to all princes to prohibit Muslim muezzins to make the public call for prayer (adhan) from their minarets. For over one hundred years this decree was ignored until the reign of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain when it was enforced. Jews were given the privilege to have Jewish witnesses to testify against Jewish defendants. As a common practice Christians patronised Jewish physicians because of their expertise. Soon rumours started circulating that Jews took advantage of their position to bring about deaths of their Christian patients. A c c o r d i n g l y, a law was passed forbidding the employment of Jewish doctors. This was re- enacted in 1335 and 1412. In 1412 it was decreed that Jews and Muslims should be isolated in their ghettos and were forbidden from attending Christian weddings and funerals. When the Black Death was ravaging Spain in 1348, a great number of people blamed it on the Jews. Pope Clement VI rejected this charge and showed how the plague raged in areas where there were no Jews. In the city of Seville a Holy Wa r against the Jews was launched in 1391 by Martinez, the arch- deacon of Seville. A mob tore down synagogues and stormed the Jewish ghettos; those who survived accepted baptism. Soon it spread to the cities of Valencia, Toledo, Palma and Saragossa. The choice was always between baptism or the sword. Soon the conversos were so many that they formed a separate class in Spain. By 1449 some of the noblest houses had Jewish blood in them like King Ferdinand, the Grand Inquisitor Torquemada and the archbishop of Granada. In 1492, the government of King Ferdinand 31 INQUISITION – INTELLECTUAL TERRORISM? The Review of Religions – March 2005 passed a decree expelling all Jews. It gave the entire Jewish population until July 31 to leave Spain under penalty of death. This meant all of their possessions must be sold at reduced prices and in many cases they could not collect debts. For those Jews who overstayed, total confiscation was enforced. Whatever possessions they could carry were taxed at the equivalent of the daily wages of 120 labourers. During the great exodus, more than 200,000 Jews fled Spain, of whom 120,000 went to Portugal. Here they could pay to stay for a further 6 months, after which they again had the choice to convert or leave. Many went to North African Muslim countries. Others sailed to Italy, Holland and Mediterranean ports. Turkish Sultan Bayazet II made them particularly welcome and looked forward to having his nation enriched by their knowledge of business and finance. In Constantinople they became wealthy international traders. They spoke Spanish and surrounded themselves with their old culture. By the middle of the 1500’s, over 15,000 Jews lived in Istanbul. When 24 Jews of Ancona, Italy, were burned in an auto-da-fe in 1556, the Jews of Turkey banded together to retort with an economic boycott. The Sultan even sent an ambassador to Ancona to demand the release of Jews held in prisons. It is worth noting that in contrast, the tolerance that had previously been shown to Jews by Muslims has been described by Jewish scholars as ‘the golden age of Jews’. The 1492 Expulsion Edict of Ferdinand and Isabella was not officially withdrawn until 1968. Persecution of Muslims The wholesale expulsion of Jews is no less pitiful than the expulsion of Muslims (Moriscos or Moors) from Spain. It has been described by Cardinal Richelieu as one of the most barbarous in human annals. Under threat of torture, most of 32 INQUISITION – INTELLECTUAL TERRORISM? The Review of Religions – March 2005 the native Muslims accepted baptism but remained Muslim at heart. In Castile, many of the Mudejares abandoned their native dress and language to blend in with the locals. After numerous threats, an Edict of Expulsion was issued in 1502 for the Muslims. All the children were detained and baptised. Expatriation was made very difficult. They were prohibited from taking with them any gold, silver or certain articles. They were told they could not go to a Christian country, Turkey or to North Africa. In the kingdom of Aragon, Moors succumbed to such threats. In 1525, King Charles V proclaimed that no Muslim should remain in his kingdom. In view of these circumstances, whole communities in some places embraced Christianity. In 1538, a group of Moorish slaves was punished on the charge of coming together at night to play musical instruments and perform zambras (Moorish dances) and to eat Kuskus. In 1556 when Phillip II came to the throne, a member of the Supreme Council of the Inquisition in Granada was ordered to carry out a rigorous policy of suppression. In this respect an edict was issued and duly enforced. Use of the Arabic language was forbidden, no one could wear Moorish garments, Moorish baths were to be closed down, and Christian midwives were to be present at all births so as to ensure baptism. The next y e a r, orders were issued to abandon Moorish costumes at once, and to surrender all children between the ages of three and fifteen to the priests so as to teach them Christian doctrine. These stringent mea- sures resulted in an uprising in December 1568 by the Muslims of Granada led by Don Hernando (Muhammad ibn Humeya) but it did not last long. In 1570 a prohibition was put in place against having any Arabic book. This happened only three years after the capture of Granada when a wholesale literary holocaust took place in 33 INQUISITION – INTELLECTUAL TERRORISM? The Review of Religions – March 2005 1567 under To r q u e m a d a ‘ s auspices which had no parallel in Europe until 1933. Rumours were circulating that Muslims from North Africa planned to invade Spain and re-establish Muslim rule once again. Therefore, King Philip II decided to forbid them their dress, their baths and their language. The Inquisitional law of tale-bearing was still in force i.e. pitting children against their parents and wives against their husbands. Bishops proposed measures to appoint special Inquisitors, deport Muslims to Newfoundland, or castrate all males. The process of deportation was not completed until 1615. One historian, Vacandard, has esti- mated that more than half a million Muslims and Jews were banished from Spain, about 1/16th of the total population. This measure greatly weakened Spain by depriving her of some of the most skillful, and industrious citizens. This in fact proved to be an economic disaster, which took hundred of years to overcome. In the years that followed, there were isolated reports of mosques or organised Muslim groups that were put down. Inquisition Elsewhere The Inquisition was more benign in northern Europe: in England it was never instituted, and in Scandinavia it had no impact. In the rest of Europe, the Inquisition was used to suppress emerging Christian sects such as early Protestantism, French Illustration Erasmism and Illuminism. It also played some political role in France and Holland. Conclusion One wonders why Catholic officials did not raise their voices against such a cruel system. Why did the rulers of other European countries not condemn this pogrom or do something to prevent it? When the Nazis tried to annihilate the Jews in Germany, there was world-wide condemnation. The main author and executioner of the Spanish expulsion, Juan de Ribera, archbishop of Valencia, was beatified which is one degree 34 INQUISITION – INTELLECTUAL TERRORISM? The Review of Religions – March 2005 short of sainthood i.e. he was considered a model Christian. This crowning victory of a despotic state came about through partnership with the Church. It appears the king and the Pope collaborated to persecute Jews and Muslims. Did J e s u s( a s ) not admonish his followers: ‘The Son of man did not come to destroy men’s lives, but to save them.’ (Luke 9:56) Spain was deprived of some of its most skilled artisans, its most industrious peasantry, and its keenest brains. This was in fact the worst kind of brain-drain. They destroyed all freedom of thought, and for many years the sky was livid with the flames of Auto-da-fe; burning people for thinking, for investigating, for expressing honest opinions. The net result was that a darkness of ignorance settled over Spain, pierced by no star and shone upon by no rising sun for hundreds of years. The finest system of irrigation established by Muslims fell into disrepair, the terraced hillsides were allowed to lose their soil, the population dwindled to its former level, and what had once been the garden of Spain under the Muslims became a desert. The land in which the former inhabitants had tended every inch of ground was now so depopulated that a man might travel through it for a day’s journey without seeing more than a handful of half-ruined hovels. We might hope that such behaviour could not be repeated today, but the Muslim world is currently trying to force orthodoxy on its populations, and although the measures are nowhere near as extreme of the Inquisition, the net result is to restrain thought and inquiry. No religion or prophet has ever taught such behaviour, yet it is the evil excesses of man that allow him to treat his fellow man in such a cruel way. We may wish to look upon history with despair, and wonder why man behaved like this, but 35 INQUISITION – INTELLECTUAL TERRORISM? The Review of Religions – March 2005 unfortunately, history has a sad habit of repeating itself, and has no limitations of colour or faith. References 1. John O’Brien, The Inquisition, New York 1973. 2. Cecil Roth, The Spanish Inquisition, London 1937. 3. S. P. Scott, H i s t o ry of the Moorish Empire in Spain , Philadelphia in 1904. 4. R. Fletcher, Moorish Spain, New York,1992, page 139. 5. B. Netanyahu, The Origins of Inquisition in 15th Century Spain, NY 1995. 6. Edward Peters, I n q u i s i t i o n, London 1988. 36 INQUISITION – INTELLECTUAL TERRORISM? The Review of Religions – March 2005 Advertise your business in The Review of Religions and see sales scale to new heights. Existing adverts can be placed and sponsorship on regular features is available in this longest running worldwide Muslim monthly magazine in the English language. 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