Freedom of Religion Islam The Existence of God

The True Religion

ladder in the sky

(From Tashhiz al-Azhan)

By Hazrat Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmad (ra), Second Worldwide Head of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community

Translated into English for the first time by Ahmad Nooruddeen Jahangeer Khan for The Review of Religions Translation Team

The Review of Religions takes full responsibility for any errors in translation.

I do not write this article with the aim of pointing out the flaws of any religion, criticising the doctrines of any religious sect, finding fault in any denomination, exposing the weaknesses of a community or even to highlight the short-comings of any movement. Rather, my sole purpose, aim, desire, wish and intention in this article is only to present to those in search of truth, this reality, truth, knowledge and light which grants life to the dead, sight to the blind, hearing to the deaf, healing to the sick, and which removes one who is drowning in the ocean of sin from the abyss of misguidance and leads them into the comforting warmth of the sun of truth; and which raises one who has fallen into the bottom of a deep well to the highest summits of the mountains of the cognisance of God.

It is Islam alone through which thousands – actually, hundreds of thousands – of beasts were transformed into humans, and then humans into Godly people. This is that very fountain through which countless people not only drank from and quenched their extreme thirst, but also quenched the thirst of their family, kinsfolk, relatives, friends, companions and associates. Whoever has come to the table of this pure religion to eat has not only tasted the exquisite and delicious food of divine blessings, but has had their fill of them. Hence, having accepted this religion, hundreds of thousands, rather, millions, have attained the true purpose of their lives. They have enjoyed the boundless favours and blessings of their True Creator which those who seek the truth hold dearer to themselves than their wealth, their lives, their honour, their reputation and their status, and in frantic and passionate pursuit of which hundreds of thousands of pious people have forsaken everything in the world.

It is an obvious fact – one every person is capable of understanding – that the true religion is only that which guides people to God Almighty and removes the veil which acts as a barrier between the worshipper and the Worshipped. And it possesses such a force that it removes all the hurdles that come between man and God; draws its followers away from sin and submerges them into the river of virtue and righteousness; grants those who are weak such strength that they are able to break completely free from the grasp of Satan, who loses any power and influence over them. And it should embed such awe of God in their hearts that they tear down the snares of sin as if they were cobwebs and taste the fresh air of freedom; and which instils such love and adoration of God Almighty in their hearts, as though they are immersed in the cognisance of God at all times, and through the radiance of the light of faith, is busy in meeting Him and seeing Him through the eyes of inner purity; The creation immersed in devotion to God perceives things in the way God wishes and thus always harbours compassion for mankind . Hence, they should be utterly lost in God and attain such a life whereby they see not with their own eyes, but with the eyes of God.

A religion is false and can never be deemed to be from God if it is unable to do so, and which does not have the ability to give man – who is in an eternal search for love – the water from the fountain of God Almighty’s eternal love to drink; if it does not grant the cooling comfort and solace of union to the lover suffering from the anguish of separation from their beloved; if it does not reveal that which is sought to the seeker if it does not guide those who are lost; steer those who have gone astray to the right path and bestow those seeking sight the ability to behold God Almighty through the eyes of perfect cognition. [A religion is erroneous and can never be deemed to be from God if] by affirming His true attributes, it fails to spark in man a passionate love of those attributes; if it does not kindle a fire which inspires hearts and melts souls and reduces the world and all that is in it to ashes, and manifests the splendour of God Almighty before the eyes of man and if it fails to propose teachings and guidance to the world to eliminate disorder remove enmity and extinguish the fire of malice and rancour. [A religion is false and can never be deemed to be from God if it fails to] open the door to peace and security for all of humanity, through which the breeze of divine blessings and signs blow pleasantly upon them with the perfume of love; and if it does not enable mankind to hear the sweet voice of their True Beloved, Whom their hearts have yearned to meet since time immemorial . [Such a religion is false and can in no way be deemed to be from God] for it fails to display any sign from the True Friend. Such a religion is dead. What possible benefit can one gain from following it? It fails to unite man with God; rather, it separates one even further from Him. It does not protect humanity, but rather, brings them misfortune and itself requires that its followers protect it.

Thus, when looked at through the lens of this clear and evident standard, no religion other than Islam reaches it. This is because Islam is not a mere outer shell, but rather is the delightful kernel inside. It is alive and not dead, and not only is it itself living, it also grants life to others. And abundant evidence for this can be found by examining its principles. Accordingly, hundreds of thousands, rather millions, of arguments and proofs are found in support of the truthfulness of this religion in the Holy Qur’an and the ahadith [oral traditions of the Holy Prophet (sa)], which are more radiant than the sun, shine more brightly than the stars and are more lustrous than the moon. And having seen the beauty of these proofs, hundreds of thousands of people like moths [to a flame] have been devoted and drawn to them, are devoted and drawn to them and will continue to be devoted and drawn to them. However, because ample time would be required to explain this topic in detail, and as there is insufficient space in the magazine to do so, on this occasion, I will briefly write a few points derived from Surah al-Fatihah [the opening chapter of the Holy Qur’an]. Of course, I hope that with the continued grace of Allah Almighty, I shall be able to continue to write purely such articles in this magazine which establish the truthfulness of Islam.

Surah al-Fatihah – which I now wish to write about – is the very first chapter of the Holy Qur’an, or one should say, it is the essence of the Holy Qur’an and all the knowledge which has been detailed throughout the Holy Qur’an is succinctly summed up in this chapter. Furthermore, as God Almighty is Infinite, His words too have limitless meanings. Hence, it is impossible and beyond man’s capacity to completely encompass all the meanings comprised in this chapter. But of course, every man’s understanding depends on their determination and capacity. The more one’s heart is granted light and the more one strives and pursues this narrow path, the greater the reward they shall reap. Hence, God Almighty’s Being, the revelation of His word and the truthfulness of Islam have all been mentioned clearly in this chapter. But on this occasion, considering that those I am addressing already believe in the existence of God Almighty but reject Islam, I shall present those proofs which establish the grandeur of the Holy Qur’an. But before doing so, I deem it appropriate to quote the following verses:

*ٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ ٱلۡعٰلَمِينَ

* ٱلرَّحۡمٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

*مٰلِكِ يَوۡمِ ٱلدِّينِ

[‘All praise belongs to Allah, Lord of all the worlds, The Gracious, the Merciful, Master of the Day of Judgment.’]

As I have previously mentioned, only that religion is true which strengthens the bond between man and God Almighty. In other words, this religion must impart such wisdom and spirituality that man automatically develops love for God Almighty, and in addition, instil in them the capacity to show mercy and compassion to all other creatures. Such a religion must also possess certain signs. Islam has very clearly explained every single facet. Fittingly, the very first thing mentioned in this chapter is that man is taught that God Almighty – Who created the heavens and the earth – is رَبُّ ٱلۡعٰلَمِين [Lord of all the worlds] and is worthy and deserving of all praise. Thus, it is evident to any wise person that there are two methods of [inspiring] love – one is husn (beauty) and the other is ihsan (favour). Thus, God Almighty has alluded to both methods in this verse and stated that the God of Islam is He Who nourishes and supports all things, Who allows them to develop gradually and brings them to perfection. Hence, when we observe the world, we find the manifestation of this attribute in each and every thing, and from a mustard seed to the largest of objects, we find this attribute in operation. Take man, for example: there is a time when he is a mere drop of sperm that cannot be seen with the naked eye, and in fact, it is impossible to see without using a microscope.

Leaving this stage, the sperm-drop enters the womb and after a while, takes the shape of a clot of blood. After a little more time passes, it then grows into a lump of flesh, then bones start to develop and then those bones are clothed with flesh.

Thereafter, by divine decree, such a breath is blown into it whereby that very same lifeless object comes to life and becomes ready to receive the grand and boundless favours of God Almighty. At this point, the difference between what it was before and what it is now is like the difference between night and day. God Almighty alludes to this very providence in the following verses:

*وَلَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسٰنَ مِن سُلٰلَةٍ مِّن طِينٍ *ثُمَّ جَعَلۡنٰهُ نُطۡفَةً فِى قَرَارٍ مَّكِينٍ *ثُمَّ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلنُّطۡفَةَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡعَلَقَةَ مُضۡغَةً فَخَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡمُضۡغَةَ عِظٰمًا فَكَسَوۡنَا ٱلۡعِظٰمَ لَحۡمًا ثُمَّ أَنشَأۡنٰهُ خَلۡقًا ءَاخَرَ‌ۚ فَتَبَارَكَ ٱللّٰهُ أَحۡسَنُ ٱلۡخٰلِقِينَ  

[‘Verily, We created man from an extract of clay; Then We placed him as a drop of sperm in a safe depository; Then We fashioned the sperm into a clot; then We fashioned the clot into a shapeless lump; then We fashioned bones out of this shapeless lump; then We clothed the bones with flesh; then We developed it into another creation. So blessed be Allah, the Best of creators.’] [1]

Thus, God Almighty has explained His attribute of rububiyyah (nurturing and sustaining) in these verses and how He takes something practically insignificant and brings it, through this attribute of rububiyyah, to progress to the highest stages. Accordingly, He transforms elements from the earth into a drop of sperm, then to a clot of blood followed by a lump of flesh. He then shapes it into something with bones and flesh and finally, through the attribute of rububiyyah, He develops it to the point that a once-lifeless object is granted life and becomes a new creation altogether.

How magnificent are the blessings of God Almighty through which such wonderful and perfect creatures come into being? Humans are just one example, but in reality, every single thing in the world develops through this attribute and can greatly benefit the person who reflects on this. If we take the example of a banyan tree, we find that its seed is the same size as a mustard seed, yet when God Almighty’s attribute of rububiyyah comes into action and it begins to grow, that very same seed which is the size of a mustard seed grows into such an enormous tree that hundreds of people can rest in its shade. Therefore, every single thing, be it inanimate or living, big or small, solid or liquid, hard or soft, functions under God Almighty’s attribute of rububiyyah, and if this attribute were to cease in playing its role for even a moment, the entire system would suddenly fall to the ground. From the sun to the shooting stars, from the mountain to the atom, from the elephant to the mosquito; the smallest atoms of each and every thing and each and every creature are functioning under this attribute of rububiyyah and this attribute is in operation everywhere. Therefore, if such a God – Who is so Perfect, and Who, by way of this attribute, is so unparalleled in both His beauty and benevolence that no other creature can equal Him – is not to be praised, then who else can people’s hearts be inclined to praise?

Hence, indicating this in ٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ ٱلۡعٰلَمِينَ, God Almighty states that everything in the world that man ponders over operates due to His attribute of rububiyyah and nothing can survive without His support and He alone is the Source of all that is good, all excellences, all virtues, all beauties and all favours and blessings. The whole system runs because of Him and He has created all necessary things in accordance with His attribute of rububiyyah. So before such excellence and beauty and benevolence, who can draw ones heart away from praising Him?

Just as a person’s heart is overwhelmingly filled with love after witnessing beauty and benevolence, when one recites this verse, their heart inclines to God Almighty, their love is stirred and they enter a state of intoxication. Furthermore, a joy emerges out of this abundance of love, whereby a person, through His favours, meets God Almighty and their heart is enlightened. And because rububiyyah removes all hurdles from one’s path, it leaves a special light on the heart of such a person. They become free of sin and their hearts begins to feel comforted. At such moments, God Almighty’s attribute of rahmaniyyah (grace) begins to come into effect and the one who has learnt the secrets of rububiyyah bows to God Almighty and love for Him is embedded in their heart. Severing all ties with the world, they become God Almighty’s entirely, and they are occupied in His remembrance at all times. Hence, when man reaches this state, God Almighty then says, ‘I am also ٱلرَّحِيمِ [Merciful], that is, I grant My special help to whoever strives in My way.’ God Almighty has stated:

بِٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ رَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ

[‘to the believers He is compassionate, merciful.’] [2]

In another instance, He states:

حَقًّا عَلَيۡنَا نَصۡرُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ

[‘it was certainly due from Us to help the believers.’] [3]

In other words, when a person’s heart inclines to God Almighty through the attribute of rububiyyah, and when, seeing His rahmaniyyah (grace), they cut themselves off from the world and become God Almighty’s entirely, in that moment He brings the attribute of rahimiyyah (mercy) into motion upon them. As a result, they are counted among the beloved in the sight of God, and thereafter, God takes it upon Himself to help and support them. He looks upon them with love and affection, and He grants them success in every field and valley, and He destroys their enemies and He confers their friends with honour and respect. Furthermore, anyone who opposes them becomes an opponent of God, and His sense of honour for them increases greatly. Moreover, He showers upon them from the heavens and brings forth from the earth and it is as though the heavens and the earth cease to exist and He creates an altogether new earth and a new heaven for their sake.

After this, by mentioning the attribute of مٰلِكِ يَوۡمِ ٱلدِّينِ, [master of the Day of Judgement] God Almighty explains that when such a person becomes so endeared to Him, He makes a judgement about them, in accordance with their status and rank, whereby their enemies are destroyed and victory and support are decreed in their favour. Thus, according to the situation, they are made kings in the earth, be it physically or spiritually. At another place God Almighty states:

*ٱلۡمُلۡكُ يَوۡمَئِذٖ لِّلَّهِ يَحۡكُمُ بَيۡنَهُمۡۚ فَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ فِي جَنَّـٰتِ ٱلنَّعِيمِ *وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَكَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَا فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ لَهُمۡ عَذَابٞ مُّهِينٞ


That is to say, when man progresses stage by stage to the point that they are beloved of God, He sets a day of judgment between them and their opponents, wherein He manifests His grandeur in a brilliant manner and decides between them. Furthermore, the ones dear to His righteous servant will be in peace and security on that day, whereas the enemies, having failed utterly, will burn in the fire of anger, frustration, disappointment and disgrace, and this very world becomes a hell for them. On the other hand, the believers taste paradise in this very world. God Almighty states:

  لَا خَوۡفٌ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَلَا هُمۡ يَحۡزَنُونَ


That is, on them shall come no fear, nor shall they grieve, and they shall eat from the pleasant fruit of God Almighty’s favours. This is what is alluded to when the dwellers of paradise shall say:

هَـٰذَا ٱلَّذِى رُزِقۡنَا مِن قَبۡلُ ‌  

[‘This is what was given us before’.] [6]

That is to say, we had tasted this fruit in the world in the form of success, but now we are reaping the full benefit thereof.

God Almighty has, first of all, briefly mentioned all His attributes in these verses, because the word ‘Allah’ symbolises all the attributes found in God Almighty, which comprise all virtues and are free from all evil, as is mentioned in various passages of the Holy Qur’an:

أَنَّ ٱللّٰهَ تَوَّابٌ حَكِيمٌ [‘Surely Allah is Compassionate and Wise’].[7]

 أَنَّ ٱللّٰهَ رَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ [‘Surely Allah is Compassionate and Merciful’].[8]

In Surah al-Anfal God Almighty states: إِنَّ ٱللّٰهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ [‘Surely Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing’].[9]

In Surah al-Hajj: إِنَّ ٱللّٰهَ سَمِيعُۢ بَصِيرٌ [‘Surely Allah is All-Hearing, All-Seeing’].[10]

In Surah al-Baqarah: أَنَّ ٱللّٰهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلۡعِقَابِ [‘Surely Allah is severe in punishing’].[11]

In Surah al-Taubah: أَنَّ ٱللّٰهَ عَلّٰمُ ٱلۡغُيُوبِ [‘Surely Allah is the Best Knower of all unseen things’].[12]

In Surah al-Ma’idah: أَنَّ ٱللّٰهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ۬ [‘Surely Allah is Most Forgiving, Merciful’].[13]

In Surah al-Mujadalah: إِنَّ ٱللّٰهَ لَعَفُوٌّ غَفُورٌ [‘Surely Allah is the Effacer of sins, Most Forgiving’].[14]

In Surah al-Hajj: إِنَّ ٱللّٰهَ لَهُوَ ٱلۡغَنِىُّ ٱلۡحَمِيدُ [‘Surely Allah is Self-Sufficient, Praiseworthy’].[15]

In Surah al-Dhariyat: إِنَّ ٱللّٰهَ هُوَ ٱلرَّزَّاقُ[‘Surely, it is Allah Himself Who is the Great Sustainer’].[16]

In Surah al-Hajj: إِنَّ ٱللّٰهَ لَقَوِىٌّ عَزِيزٌ [‘Allah is indeed Powerful, Mighty’].[17]

In Surah Al-e-‘Imran: وَٱللّٰهُ يُحۡىِۦ وَيُمِيتُ‌ۗ [‘And Allah gives life and causes death’].[18]

And in Surah al-Hashr:

ٱلۡمَلِكُ ٱلۡقُدُّوسُ ٱلسَّلَٰمُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُ ٱلۡمُهَيۡمِنُ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡجَبَّارُ ٱلۡمُتَكَبِّرُۚ سُبۡحَٰنَ ٱللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشۡرِكُونَ* هُوَ ٱللّٰهُ ٱلۡخَـٰلِقُ ٱلۡبَارِئُ ٱلۡمُصَوِّرُ‌ۖ لَهُ ٱلۡأَسۡمَآءُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ‌ۚ

[‘the Sovereign, the Holy One, the Source of Peace, the Bestower of Security, the Protector, the Mighty, the Subduer, the Exalted. Holy is Allah far above that which they associate with Him. He is Allah, the Creator, the Maker, the Fashioner. His are the most beautiful names.’].[19]

Hence, God Almighty has first of all summarised all the qualities He possesses in the word ‘Allah’, then in :

* رَبِّ ٱلۡعٰلَمِينَ

* ٱلرَّحۡمٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

*مٰلِكِ يَوۡمِ ٱلدِّينِ

[‘Lord of all the worlds. The Gracious, the Merciful, Master of Day of Judgement’][20] He has elaborated on them more and that He is unsullied by all evils.

Thus, as I have previously mentioned, the sign of a true religion is that it should instil in man a love for God Almighty, not aversion. Therefore, there is no better means to build a relationship with God Almighty than:

*ٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ ٱلۡعٰلَمِينَ

* ٱلرَّحۡمٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

*مٰلِكِ يَوۡمِ ٱلدِّين

[‘All praise belongs to Allah, Lord of all the worlds. The Gracious, the Merciful’ Master of the Day of Judgement].[21] This is because man intrinsically desires such a beloved one who is both beautiful to behold and beautiful in nature and no religion has presented God as so Pure, Beloved and Beneficent as Islam has. Furthermore, since it is necessary that the Being Who is controlling the entire system so perfectly, be the Most Perfect and that He possess all good attributes, so that He is not left deficient in any way, it is thus essential that the true religion sets forth all these wonderful qualities and presents the true and real image of God Almighty to the world. It should not portray a beloved one to be extremely beautiful, but missing a nose, or blind, or unable to hear, or missing ears, hands or feet. Because such a religion is false if it portrays God Almighty in a way that He does not possess all perfect attributes, or has any sort of defects or faults. This is because not only does it declare God Almighty to be imperfect, by accepting this imperfection, it shows that God is not eternal, which is tantamount to rejecting Him altogether.

Hence, as I have previously mentioned, God Almighty, the Lord of all the worlds, has Himself taught us His perfect attributes in Islam and in the Holy Qur’an, for He is Limitless and none but He can fully comprehend the essence and reality of His attributes, for all things beside Him are limited. Furthermore, as I have already established, the essence of these have been stated in the above-mentioned verses. And there is no good quality, which in its perfect form that Islam has not shown to belong to God Almighty. On the other hand, this is not demonstrated by other religions, and if they have then the burden of proof lies with our opponents to show that their revealed scriptures have shed the same light upon the attributes of the Merciful God. But if they fail to show this – and I say on oath that they have most certainly not done so – then how is man ever to understand God Almighty when those of His attributes that are connected with man have not even been mentioned? In other words, if it is not disclosed to man what kind of being God Almighty is and what attributes He possesses, then how can man ever develop a relationship with Him?

How is a person supposed to love a thing that he is unaware of? It is possible for a thing to exist only in the imagination and that a person begins to think highly of it and love it, as is the case with alchemy for certain people. However it is not possible for a person to love or try and build a relationship with something he knows nothing about, neither imaginatively, nor intellectually, nor with certainty. Thus, as other religions shed no light on the attributes of God – and even when they do, they present Him to be without a nose, blind, deaf and without hands and feet – how can such religions compare with Islam, which has described all the perfect attributes of God Almighty and proven Him to be without fault? The reality is that no religion other than Islam presents God in a manner whereby He can truly be loved. In fact, on the basis of their principles, one would find God Almighty detestable and loathsome. Therefore, Islam alone is the true religion.

In addition to this, there is another point which emerges from these verses which manifests the truth of Islam to be brighter than the sun. This is that God Almighty has also indicated in ٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ ٱلۡعَٰلَمِينَ [All praise belongs to Allah, Lord of all the worlds] that He is the Lord of all the worlds. That is to say that regardless of the country one resides in, or the language they speak, or the morals they possess, He has created the sun, the moon, the stars, water, the wind, the earth, fire, non-living elements and plants for the nourishment and sustenance of all kinds of people. He has not been limited his blessings to anyone, for He is رَبُّ ٱلۡعَٰلَمِين [Lord of all the worlds]. Similarly, it is clear that when He has created the whole world and provided the means for its physical comfort and ease, would He not also take care of its souls? Hence, just as He nourishes and sustains the physical world, He also nourishes and sustains the spiritual world, as is evident when God Almighty states:

*قُلۡ أَرَءَيۡتُمۡ إِنۡ أَصۡبَحَ مَآؤُكُمۡ غَوۡرٗا فَمَن يَأۡتِيكُم بِمَآءٖ مَّعِينِ


i.e. ‘Say, “Tell me, if all your water were to disappear in the earth, who then will bring you clear flowing water.”’ That is to say, you need water in this physical life, and when you need it, God Almighty sends it down. So would God Almighty not also send down divine revelation or water for the eternal spiritual life? In another instance, God Almighty states: قُلِ ٱلرُّوحُ مِنۡ أَمۡرِ رَبِّى [‘Say, “The soul is by the command of my Lord”’],[23] in other words, revelation is necessitated by the attribute of rububiyyah and it is connected with this very attribute of rububiyyah. Therefore, having witnessed physical rububiyyah, why do you reject this? And then it is stated in the Holy Qur’an:

 إِن مِّنۡ أُمَّةٍ إِلَّا خَلَا فِيهَا نَذِيرٌ  i.e., ‘there is no people to whom a Warner has not been sent’[24]. Hence, in this verse God Almighty has proved with arguments that as rububiyyah is universal, it is universal in the physical realm and also in the spiritual realm. That is to say, that divine revelation is granted to the people of all nations who are worthy of it, i.e. those who are successful on the يَوۡمِ ٱلدِّينِ [Day of Judgment], having fulfilled the requirements of rahmaniyyah [grace] and rahimiyyah [mercy], will have the door to divine revelation opened to them. Furthermore, as this rububiyyah is for all times, Islam has provided a reviver [of faith] in every era, so that man may continue to experience and examine revelation in every era. So tell me, which religion is true, that which claims it united its followers with God at a specific time in the past, or that religion which claims that it can manifest Him at all times? Is that religion worthy of devotion which declares all the blessings and bounties of God Almighty universal to all times and all places, or the religion which declares God to now be rendered ineffectual as though He were deaf?

Thus, bearing in mind the space available, I feel I have written enough to show that Islam alone can strengthen the bond between man and God and cause the fountain of mankind’s love for their True Creator to flow. If the adherents of other religions strongly disagree with this, then they should respond by presenting claims and evidence from their own revealed scriptures; otherwise, what good is there in futile arguments?

And our concluding prayer is, ‘All praise be to Allah, the Lord of all the worlds.’

The humble one,

Mirza Mahmud Ahmad

(Tashhiz al-Azhan, December 1909)

Reprinted in Anwar al- ‘Ulum, Vol.1, pp.203-214.

[1] The Holy Qur’an, 23:13-15.

[2] The Holy Qur’an, 9:128.

[3] The Holy Qur’an, 30:48.

[4] The Holy Qur’an, 22:57-58.

[5] The Holy Qur’an, 2:39.

[6] The Holy Qur’an, 2:26.

[7] The Holy Qur’an, 24:11.

[8] The Holy Qur’an, 24:21.

[9] The Holy Qur’an, 8:18.

[10] The Holy Qur’an, 22:76.

[11] The Holy Qur’an, 2:197.

[12] The Holy Qur’an, 9:78.

[13] The Holy Qur’an, 5:35.

[14] The Holy Qur’an, 58:3.

[15] The Holy Qur’an, 22:65.

[16] The Holy Qur’an, 51:59.

[17] The Holy Qur’an, 22:41,75.

[18] The Holy Qur’an, 3:157.

[19] The Holy Qur’an, 59:24-25.

[20] The Holy Qur’an, 1:2-4.

[21] Ibid.

[22] The Holy Qur’an, 67:31.

[23] The Holy Qur’an, 17:86.

[24] The Holy Qur’an, 35:25.