The Second Coming of the Messiah – An Exploration of the Islamic Concept of Messiah According to Qur’an and Hadith and His Physical Appearance

The Promised Messiah (as)
Review of Religions

Fatir Ahmad – Canada

The concept of Messiah and Mahdi has been a topic of discussion within the Muslim world for hundreds of years. As a result, a plethora of ideologies have come into existence. This article will be an examination of the true concept of the returning Messiah according to Holy Qur’an and ahadith [sayings of the Holy Prophet (sa)] as an attempt to elucidate some of these misconceptions. Foremost, it is the practice of God Almighty that when darkness overshadows light, the world becomes devoid of spirituality.  God sends His beloved prophets to illuminate the spiritually dead and revive the world. It was prophesied by the Holy Prophet (sa) himself, that despite Islam having the greatest of prophets and the most perfect revealed Book, its followers would still become hollow and dark just as the night overtakes the day.

It is narrated by Abdullah bin Amr (ra) that the Holy Prophet (sa) is recorded to have stated:

حَدَّثَنَا مَحْمُودُ بْنُ غَيْلاَنَ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو دَاوُدَ الْحَفَرِيُّ، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ الثَّوْرِيِّ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ زِيَادِ بْنِ أَنْعُمَ الإِفْرِيقِيِّ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ’‏ لَيَأْتِيَنَّ عَلَى أُمَّتِي مَا أَتَى عَلَى بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ حَذْوَ النَّعْلِ بِالنَّعْلِ حَتَّى إِنْ كَانَ مِنْهُمْ مَنْ أَتَى أُمَّهُ عَلاَنِيَةً لَكَانَ فِي أُمَّتِي مَنْ يَصْنَعُ ذَلِكَ وَإِنَّ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ تَفَرَّقَتْ عَلَى ثِنْتَيْنِ وَسَبْعِينَ مِلَّةً وَتَفْتَرِقُ أُمَّتِي عَلَى ثَلاَثٍ وَسَبْعِينَ مِلَّةً كُلُّهُمْ فِي النَّارِ إِلاَّ مِلَّةً وَاحِدَةً قَالُوا وَمَنْ هِيَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ مَا أَنَا عَلَيْهِ وَأَصْحَابِي ‏’‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ مُفَسَّرٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ لاَ نَعْرِفُهُ مِثْلَ هَذَا إِلاَّ مِنْ هَذَا الْوَجْهِ ‏.‏

‘What befell the children of Isra’il will befall my Ummah, step by step, such that if there was one who had intercourse with his mother in the open, then there would be someone from my Ummah who would do that. Indeed, the children of Isra’il split into seventy-two sects, and my Ummah will split into seventy-three sects. All of them are in the Fire except one.’ He said: ‘And who are they O Messenger of Allah?’ He said: ‘It is those who follow companions and I’. [1]

This is the hadith which records the prophesied ideological division within the Muslim world. As it is currently witnessed, there are countless sects all separating themselves from one another on the basis of illogical ideological differences, moving further and further away from the authentic teachings of Islam and the practices of the Holy Prophet (sa).  Just as Judaism and Christianity have seen their fair share of sectarianism, unfortunately, it seems Islam has met with the same fate. Similarly, the Prophet Muhammad (sa) compared his Ummah [nation] to the children of Israel who infamously rejected prophets such as John the Baptist (as) and Jesus (as).

However, similar to Judaic chronology, Islam has also been promised a revival. According to Jewish theology, the word for Messiah is ‘mashiach’ which is directly translated to smear or anoint. The Messiah will be from the lineage of David and a reflection of Prophet David’s (as) political aspirations and be a strict observer of Jewish law and commandants. [2,3] Sadly, the Jews themselves were so devoid of observance and understanding of Jewish law and scripture that they failed to recognize the promised ‘mashiach’ God had sent them in the person of Jesus Christ (as). To this day, the result of their rejection is being witnessed, from the Hellenization of the Jewish faith to the Jewish exile and diaspora. Perhaps, the Muslim Ummah can right the wrongs of the Jewish people and recognize the Promised Messiah who is meant to be in the reflection of the Jewish messiah, Jesus (as).

Similar to the Mosaic order, Messianic ideology remains an essential part of Islamic dogma. The Messianic ideology present in Islam is related to the Messiah with similarities resembling the Mosaic Messiah, Jesus (as). The resemblance is primarily expressed in the terms of a ‘second coming’ of Jesus (as) and not Jesus (as) himself as it is popularly believed by the majority of Muslims. Prophet Muhammad (sa) is recorded to have given his Ummah the glad tiding of the second coming of Jesus (as) in the following words narrated by Abu Hurairah (ra):

حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ بُكَيْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا اللَّيْثُ، عَنْ يُونُسَ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، مَوْلَى أَبِي قَتَادَةَ الأَنْصَارِيِّ أَنَّ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ’‏ كَيْفَ أَنْتُمْ إِذَا نَزَلَ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ فِيكُمْ وَإِمَامُكُمْ مِنْكُمْ ‏’‏‏.‏ تَابَعَهُ عُقَيْلٌ وَالأَوْزَاعِيُّ‏.‏

‘How will you be when the son of Mary descends amongst you and is your imam among you.’ [4]

In this hadith, the Prophet (sa) of Islam is outlining the conditions of the ‘second coming’ of Jesus. The first line relates to the condition of the Muslim Ummah that will ultimately ignite the Messianic order to come in to play. Secondly, the hadith outlines that in Jesus (as) son of Mary’s ‘second coming’ or second advent, he will be a leader and imam from among the Muslim Ummah. In combination of the two conditions presented in this hadith, considering the Mosaic Messiah Jesus (as) was Jewish and not Muslim, the Jesus (as) who stood in the synagogues in Jerusalem cannot be the same Messiah to also descend down and revive Islam some two-thousand years later.

Another contingency associated with the second coming of Jesus in Islam is the hadith which highlights the messiah as an Imam Mahdi. As popularly and falsely believed by Muslims, the Messiah and Imam Mahdi are not two separate people. The Messiah who will come as the ‘second coming’ of Jesus (as) will also carry with him the title of Imam Mahdi.

On account of the coming Mahdi the Holy Prophet (sa) stated that:

حَدَّثَنَا يُونُسُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الأَعْلَى، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ الشَّافِعِيُّ، حَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ الْجَنَدِيُّ، عَنْ أَبَانَ بْنِ صَالِحٍ، عَنِ الْحَسَنِ، عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ قَالَ ‏ ‘‏ لاَ يَزْدَادُ الأَمْرُ إِلاَّ شِدَّةً وَلاَ الدُّنْيَا إِلاَّ إِدْبَارًا وَلاَ النَّاسُ إِلاَّ شُحًّا وَلاَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ إِلاَّ عَلَى شِرَارِ النَّاسِ وَلاَ الْمَهْدِيُّ إِلاَّ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ ‏’‏ ‏.‏

‘Adhering to religion will only become harder and worldly affairs will only become more difficult, and people will only become stingier, and the Hour will only come upon the worst of people, and the only Mahdi (after Muhammad (sa)) is ‘Esa bin Maryam.’ [5]

These ahadith which have been presented only further support what has already been mentioned in the Holy Qur’an, which includes that the prophet Jesus (as) was sent only for the children of Israel. God Almighty has stated in the Holy Qur’an that:

وَرَسُولًا إِلَىٰ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ

‘And will make him a Messenger to the children of Israel.’ [6]

An important question that arises from the stated ahadith and Qur’anic verses is whether the second coming of the Messiah would be the physical or metaphorical return. These are the main questions that penetrate the whole debate between the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and other Muslims. The majority of Muslim scholars and people hold the belief that the second coming of the Messiah will be the physical return of the Messiah sent to the Jewish people. The Bible similarly states the same detail in Matthew 15:24, Jesus says, ‘I was sent only to the lost sheep of Israel.’ Thus, from these evidences one can conclude that Jesus (as) of Nazareth was specifically sent for the children of Israel and not to any other community. Jesus (as) did not prophesy his physical return to any community regardless of Jewish affiliation. Jesus (as) himself rejected the concept of a prophet physically descending from the heavens.

The Promised Messiah (as) states regarding this:

‘Let it be clear, that according to the Bible, our own books of ahadith and other records, only two prophets are supposed to have physically ascended to the heavens, namely Elijah, also known as Elias, and Messiah son of Mary, also known as ‘Isa’ or Jesus. Concerning both these prophets, some books of the Old and New Testament say that they were raised to the Heavens and shall return to the earth some time in the latter days, and that people will actually witness their descent from the skies. The ahadith of the Holy Prophet (sa) also contain words to the same effect. Concerning Elias, whose Biblical name is Elijah, the Gospels positively declare that the prophecy of his descent from the skies has been fulfilled with the birth of Yahya or John, son of Zachariah. The Messiah son of Mary declares in unmistakable terms that, ‘He is indeed the Elijah who was expected to come. Acknowledge him if you will.’ [7]

The concept of physical ascension was completely rejected by Jesus (as).  In the Bible Jesus (as) himself rejects this concept and gives the example of the second coming of Elijah (as) to be fulfilled metaphorically in the person of John the Baptist (as). The Jewish people at the time of Jesus Christ (as) believed in the physical return of Elijah (as) and they were mistaken. As the hadith previously mentioned the same mistake would be made by the Muslim Ummah as was made by the children of Israel. The Holy Prophet (sa), prophesying about the dark and disheartening condition of Islam, states the following verses of the Holy Qur’an:

ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ بَعَثَ فِی الۡاُمِّیّٖنَ رَسُوۡلًا مِّنۡہُمۡ یَتۡلُوۡا عَلَیۡہِمۡ اٰیٰتِہٖ وَ یُزَکِّیۡہِمۡ وَ یُعَلِّمُہُمُ الۡکِتٰبَ وَ الۡحِکۡمَۃَ ٭ وَ اِنۡ کَانُوۡا مِنۡ قَبۡلُ لَفِیۡ ضَلٰلٍ مُّبِیۡنٍ

وَّ اٰخَرِیۡنَ مِنۡہُمۡ لَمَّا یَلۡحَقُوۡا بِہِمۡ ؕ وَ ہُوَ الۡعَزِیۡزُ الۡحَکِیۡمُ

‘He it is Who has raised among the Unlettered people a Messenger from among themselves who recites unto them His Signs, and purifies them, and teaches them the Book and wisdom, although they had been, before, in manifest misguidance. And among others from among them who have not yet joined them. He is the Mighty, the Wise.’ [8]

God Almighty is stating that a group of people will join the companions of the Holy Prophet (sa) in the latter days who would resemble the companions in morality and spirituality.

Abu Huraira (ra) narrated that the Holy Prophet (sa) stated:

حَدَّثَنِي عَبْدُ الْعَزِيزِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ بِلاَلٍ، عَنْ ثَوْرٍ، عَنْ أَبِي الْغَيْثِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، رضى الله عنه قَالَ كُنَّا جُلُوسًا عِنْدَ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَأُنْزِلَتْ عَلَيْهِ سُورَةُ الْجُمُعَةِ ‏{‏وَآخَرِينَ مِنْهُمْ لَمَّا يَلْحَقُوا بِهِمْ‏}‏ قَالَ قُلْتُ مَنْ هُمْ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَلَمْ يُرَاجِعْهُ حَتَّى سَأَلَ ثَلاَثًا، وَفِينَا سَلْمَانُ الْفَارِسِيُّ، وَضَعَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَدَهُ عَلَى سَلْمَانَ ثُمَّ قَالَ ‏’‏ لَوْ كَانَ الإِيمَانُ عِنْدَ الثُّرَيَّا لَنَالَهُ رِجَالٌ ـ أَوْ رَجُلٌ ـ مِنْ هَؤُلاَءِ ‏’‏‏.‏

‘One day we were sitting with the Holy Prophet (sa) when this chapter was revealed. I enquired from Muhammad (sa). Who are the people to whom the words and among others of them who have not yet joined them refer? Salman (ra), a Persian was sitting among us. The Holy Prophet (sa) put his hand on Salman (ra) and spoke. If faith were to go up to the Pleiades, a man from among these would surely find it.’ [9]

The Holy Prophet (sa) describes the revolution of Islam to be completed at the hands of a Persian man who would revive the teachings of the Holy Prophet (sa) and bring back Islam from the Pleiades.  Interestingly, the Holy Prophet (sa) when describing the latter-day Messiah, described him to be different in appearance compared to the son of Mary (as) sent for the Israelites. Evidently, from various ahadith, it is deduced that the Holy Prophet (sa) knew that the latter-day Messiah and Jesus (as) were two different individuals and entities. Similarly, the name Jesus son Mary (as) was only given to the latter-day Messiah for metaphorical resemblance. The same way Jesus (as) was a subordinate Prophet to Moses (as), the coming messiah would serve in a similar manner for the Holy Prophet (sa).

Abdullah (ra) narrates the Holy Prophet (sa) describing the latter-day Messiah:

حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ الْمُنْذِرِ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو ضَمْرَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ ذَكَرَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَوْمًا بَيْنَ ظَهْرَىِ النَّاسِ الْمَسِيحَ الدَّجَّالَ، فَقَالَ ‏’‏ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَيْسَ بِأَعْوَرَ، أَلاَ إِنَّ الْمَسِيحَ الدَّجَّالَ أَعْوَرُ الْعَيْنِ الْيُمْنَى، كَأَنَّ عَيْنَهُ عِنَبَةٌ طَافِيَةٌ ‏’‏‏.‏ ‏’‏ وَأَرَانِي اللَّيْلَةَ عِنْدَ الْكَعْبَةِ فِي الْمَنَامِ، فَإِذَا رَجُلٌ آدَمُ كَأَحْسَنِ مَا يُرَى مِنْ أُدْمِ الرِّجَالِ، تَضْرِبُ لِمَّتُهُ بَيْنَ مَنْكِبَيْهِ، رَجِلُ الشَّعَرِ، يَقْطُرُ رَأْسُهُ مَاءً، وَاضِعًا يَدَيْهِ عَلَى مَنْكِبَىْ رَجُلَيْنِ وَهْوَ يَطُوفُ بِالْبَيْتِ‏.‏ فَقُلْتُ مَنْ هَذَا فَقَالُوا هَذَا الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ‏.‏ ثُمَّ رَأَيْتُ رَجُلاً وَرَاءَهُ جَعْدًا قَطَطًا أَعْوَرَ عَيْنِ الْيُمْنَى كَأَشْبَهِ مَنْ رَأَيْتُ بِابْنِ قَطَنٍ، وَاضِعًا يَدَيْهِ عَلَى مَنْكِبَىْ رَجُلٍ، يَطُوفُ بِالْبَيْتِ، فَقُلْتُ مَنْ هَذَا قَالُوا الْمَسِيحُ الدَّجَّالُ ‏’‏‏.‏ تَابَعَهُ عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ عَنْ نَافِعٍ‏.‏

‘The Prophet (sa) mentioned the Masih Ad-Dajjal in front of the people saying, Allah is not one-eyed while Masih Ad-Dajjal is blind in the right eye and his eye looks like a bulging out grape. While sleeping near the Ka`ba last night, I saw in my dream a man of brown color the best one can see amongst brown color and his hair was long that it fell between his shoulders. His hair was lank, and water was dribbling from his head and he was placing his hands on the shoulders of two men while circumambulating the Ka`ba. I asked, ‘Who is this?’ They replied, ‘This is Jesus, son of Mary.’ Behind him I saw a man who had very curly hair and was blind in the right eye, resembling Ibn Qatan (i.e. an infidel) in appearance. He was placing his hands on the shoulders of a person while performing Tawaf around the Ka`ba. I asked, ‘Who is this? ‘They replied, ‘The Masih, Ad-Dajjal.’’ [10]

Narrated by Ibn `Abbas (ra) the Prophet of Islam is recorded to have stated regarding the Messiah of the past Israelites:

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ كَثِيرٍ، أَخْبَرَنَا إِسْرَائِيلُ، أَخْبَرَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ الْمُغِيرَةِ، عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ قَالَ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ’‏ رَأَيْتُ عِيسَى وَمُوسَى وَإِبْرَاهِيمَ، فَأَمَّا عِيسَى فَأَحْمَرُ جَعْدٌ عَرِيضُ الصَّدْرِ، وَأَمَّا مُوسَى فَآدَمُ جَسِيمٌ سَبْطٌ كَأَنَّهُ مِنْ رِجَالِ الزُّطِّ ‏’‏‏.‏

The Prophet (sa) said, ‘I saw Moses, Jesus and Abraham (on the night of my Ascension to the Heavens.) Jesus was of red complexion, curly hair and a broad chest. Moses was of brown complexion, straight hair and tall stature as if he was from the people of Az-Zutt.’ [11]

These two narrations clearly show the difference of skin tone and different hair colors and styles. Thus, this proves that the Messiah of Moses (as) and the Messiah of Muhammad (sa) are two different entities and beings. One is of red complexion resembling Jewish people and the other seems to be of Persian Indian descent with black hair and brown skin. The Promised Messiah (as) is recorded to have stated that, ‘May God have mercy on Ismael Bukhari (ra) for if he had not differentiated my appearance from the appearance of the Messiah of the Israelites than how would the muhaditheen have accepted me.’ [12] It was extremely vital that Imam Bukhari himself held the view that the two Messiahs are two different entities. He categorically made the distinctions in his book, Sahih Bukhari, which is known to be the most pristine and authentic book after the Holy Qur’an in Islamic literature. Millions of Muslims today who are waiting for Jesus to physically descend from the Heavens are opposed to Ahadith highlighting the two Messiahs as different races and cultures.

In addition, regarding the Mahdi the Holy Prophet (sa) is also recorded to have stated that:

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى، وَأَحْمَدُ بْنُ يُوسُفَ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ الثَّوْرِيِّ، عَنْ خَالِدٍ الْحَذَّاءِ، عَنْ أَبِي قِلاَبَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي أَسْمَاءَ الرَّحَبِيِّ، عَنْ ثَوْبَانَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ ‏’‏ يَقْتَتِلُ عِنْدَ كَنْزِكُمْ ثَلاَثَةٌ كُلُّهُمُ ابْنُ خَلِيفَةٍ ثُمَّ لاَ يَصِيرُ إِلَى وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمْ ثُمَّ تَطْلُعُ الرَّايَاتُ السُّودُ مِنْ قِبَلِ الْمَشْرِقِ فَيَقْتُلُونَكُمْ قَتْلاً لَمْ يُقْتَلْهُ قَوْمٌ ‏’‏ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ ذَكَرَ شَيْئًا لاَ أَحْفَظُهُ فَقَالَ ‏’‏ فَإِذَا رَأَيْتُمُوهُ فَبَايِعُوهُ وَلَوْ حَبْوًا عَلَى الثَّلْجِ فَإِنَّهُ خَلِيفَةُ اللَّهِ الْمَهْدِيُّ

‘Three will fight one another for your treasure, each one of them the son of a caliph, but none of them will gain it. Then the black banners will come from the East (Khurasan, Persia), and they will kill you in an unprecedented manner.’ Then he mentioned something that I do not remember, then he said: ‘When you see them, then pledge your allegiance to them even if you have to crawl over the snow, for that is the caliph of Allah, Mahdi.’ [13]

This narration stresses the importance of allegiance to the coming Messiah. It also highlights that the coming Mahdi will come from Persia, and that same person will revive faith from when it reaches Pleiades. Thus, the Mahdi and Messiah resemble one another according to the narrations of the Holy Prophet (sa).

Narrated by Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (ra), the Holy Prophet (sa) states:

حَدَّثَنَا سَهْلُ بْنُ تَمَّامِ بْنِ بَزِيعٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عِمْرَانُ الْقَطَّانُ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي نَضْرَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‘‏ الْمَهْدِيُّ مِنِّي أَجْلَى الْجَبْهَةِ أَقْنَى الأَنْفِ يَمْلأُ الأَرْضَ قِسْطًا وَعَدْلاً كَمَا مُلِئَتْ جَوْرًا وَظُلْمًا يَمْلِكُ سَبْعَ سِنِينَ

‘The Mahdi will be of my stock and will have a broad forehead and a prominent nose. He will fill the earth with equity and justice as it was filled with oppression and tyranny, and he will rule for seven years.’ [14]

This narration alongside side multiple narrations provided above, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) is the true Promised Messiah and Mahdi because in the picture which was taken of the Promised Messiahs (as) it is evident he has a prominent nose and has a broad forehead.

In conclusion, from these narrations, we are forced to acknowledge that the coming Messiah and Mahdi will not be the physical descent of Jesus (as) of Nazareth. The resemblance between them will be a metaphorical one. They will resemble one another in their actions and position within their respective religious dispensation. The Islamic concept of Messiah and Mahdi according to the Qur’an and hadith reveal that Messianic order is a custom among all of the major religions of the world. Thus, it is not an uncanny belief of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community that Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani is the Messiah and Mahdi promised to the Islamic dispensation founded by the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sa). The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community’s belief in a separate Messiah to the Islamic dispensation follows the natural order of religious divinity.

 About the Author: Fatir Ahmad is a graduate from the Ahmadiyya Institute of Languages and Theology in Canada and currently serves as an Imam of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community Canada.


  1. Jami’at Tirmidhi #2641
  2. Jeremiah 23:5
  3. Isaiah 11: 2-5
  4. Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 55, Hadith #658
  5. Ibn Majah Hadith #4039
  6. The Holy Qur’an 3:50
  7. Elucidation of Objectives [English Translation] p.4
  8. The Holy Qur’an 62:3
  9. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Hadith #420
  10. Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, book 55, Hadith #649
  11. Bukhari Volume 5, book 55, hadith 648
  12. Ashab Ahmad, Vol.10, p.172
  13. Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 3, 4084
  14. Sunan Abi Dawud 4285