Why Alcohol is Prohibited in Islam

No Comments | April 2016
Alcohol consumption has become a fundamental cause of crime globally. This addiction is inherent in modern society and seems to be on the rise because of accessibility. Islam is the only religion that has categorically prohibited alcohol for the good of society. © Kamira / Shutterstock.com

Alcohol consumption has become a fundamental cause of crime globally. This addiction is inherent in modern society and seems to be on the rise because of accessibility. Islam is the only religion that has categorically prohibited alcohol for the good of society.
© Kamira / Shutterstock.com

Undoubtedly, the ancient custom of alcohol consumption is deeply woven into the fabric of modern-day society. Despite being consumed by almost two billion people worldwide, of whom at least 76.3 million suffer an alcohol-related disorder, alcohol is perceived as just another routine of daily life. Statistics bear witness to the fact that the devastating impact of alcohol consumption on human civilisation is no myth and is becoming increasingly apparent as society continuously fails in its attempts to control drinking.[1]

The data shows the detrimental effect alcohol has upon society as well as individuals. Alcohol is widely accepted in the West but it has caused more harm than other illegal drugs such as heroin and cocaine. “Scoring drugs”, The Economist. (Accessed via Wiki Commons)

The data shows the detrimental effect alcohol has upon society as well as individuals. Alcohol is widely accepted in the West but it has caused more harm than other illegal drugs such as heroin and cocaine. “Scoring drugs”, The Economist. (Accessed via Wiki Commons)

In 2005, a United States government study found that alcohol abuse was linked to 75,000 U.S. deaths per year.[2]
That number increased in the following years and from 2006 to 2010, excessive alcohol use led to nearly 88,000 deaths each year—making alcohol consumption America’s third leading preventable cause of death.[3,4] More recently, a large study carried out in the U.S. found that “roughly three in ten U.S. adults have a drinking problem or have misused alcohol at some point in the past.”[5] However, this epidemic is not limited to the borders of America alone. In 2012, 3.3 million deaths worldwide (5.9 percent of all global deaths) were attributable to alcohol consumption. Globally, alcohol misuse is the fifth leading risk factor for premature death and disability, and among people between the ages of 15 and 49, it is the first.[6] Such alarming statistics should be, without a doubt, a cause for international concern. But as the world has witnessed historically, the recurring failure of prohibition movements such as the American Prohibition (1920-1933), has caused a culture of drinking to dominate and heavily influence the lives of billions of people worldwide, drinkers and non-drinkers alike.

As the world acknowledges the harmful impact of alcohol and scrambles to minimise its detrimental effects, many are unaware that in the history of human civilisation there does indeed exist a time when a society was purged of the troubles that accompany alcohol consumption—a society whose people were delivered from the shackles and stronghold of alcohol abuse. Certainly, the society and community established by the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa in 7th century Arabia was mostly cured of the plague of alcoholism. This gives rise to a most pertinent question—what was it about the Islamic prohibition that allowed it to succeed where other prohibition movements failed miserably?

Prohibition in the United States of America (1920-1933)

The removal of alcohol during Prohibition was an attempt by the U.S. government to eradicate this ubiquitous intoxicant. It failed due to the widespread addiction nationally. © Vintage periods. (Accessed via Wiki Commons)

The removal of alcohol during Prohibition was an attempt by the U.S. government to eradicate this ubiquitous intoxicant. It failed due to the widespread addiction nationally.
© Vintage periods. (Accessed via Wiki Commons)

The prohibition of alcohol was not a popular idea with many Americans. Initially, under the 18th amendment that prohibited “the manufacture, sale and distribution of intoxicating liquors”, the consumption of alcohol fell by 20-40 percent. But then it began to rise, and only one year after the prohibition was instated, alcohol consumption began to make a sharp recurrence. From 1921 to 1927, it had increased to 60-70 percent of its pre-prohibition level.[7] Social pressure and respect for the law did not have an impact on the consumption of alcohol. Simply put, those who wanted to drink drank. Edward Behr, author of Prohibition: 13 Years That Changed America writes, “With Prohibition, America was all set for a wild drinking spree that would last thirteen years, five months, and nine days.”[8] In fact, over the thirteen years of prohibition, Americans produced 700 million gallons of beer each year in the confines of their own homes.[9] Furthermore, not only did spending on alcohol increase, but also spending on substitutes for alcohol increased. In addition to patent medicines, consumers switched to narcotics: hashish, tobacco, marijuana and cocaine. These products were potentially more dangerous and addictive than alcohol, and procuring them often brought users into contact with a more dangerous criminal element.[10]

 During the Prohibition period, American citizens used every means imaginable to procure alcoholic beverages. Drinks were even acquired on medical grounds. National pressure nally caused the revocation of Prohibition. Treasury Department. National Archives. (Accessed via Wiki Commons)

During the Prohibition period, American citizens used every means imaginable to procure alcoholic beverages. Drinks were even acquired on medical grounds. National pressure finally caused the revocation of Prohibition.
Treasury Department. National Archives. (Accessed via Wiki Commons)

By 1933, the Prohibition experiment failed and simply re-affirmed the fact that the American people loved drinking and were not willing to abide by a constitutional law that prohibited alcohol. As Amy Mittleman states in Brewing Battles: A History of American Beer, “Both retailers and drinkers refused to accept the legitimacy of prohibition legislation.[11]

Alcohol in the Biblical Context

Christian dogma does not forbid the consumption of alcohol, which is the main reason for its accessibility in the West, despite recognition of its ill-e ects. Only the Holy Qur’an has explicitly prohibited it, proving the inimitable wisdom of this divine scripture. Copyright: (Accessed via Wiki Commons)

Christian dogma does not forbid the consumption of alcohol, which is the main reason for its accessibility in the West, despite recognition of its ill-effects. Only the Holy Qur’an has explicitly prohibited it, proving the inimitable wisdom of this divine scripture.
Copyright: (Accessed via Wiki Commons)

Where the constitutional law failed to bring an end to alcohol consumption, religious law was no more effective. A society under the influence of Judeo-Christian theology cannot prohibit the consumption of alcohol, as it is not explicitly forbidden in their religious scriptures. Of all religious scriptures, it is only the Holy Qur’an which definitively and categorically forbids the consumption of alcohol. Expounding upon a historical truth, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmadas, the Promised Messiah and Founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, states, “There was, as it were, no limit to the amount of drinking or gambling practiced by the followers of these two books (Torah and Gospels) because they both suffered the inherent flaw that they did not prohibit these two terrible deeds (alcohol consumption and gambling)—and, consequently, did not forbid lewd people from consuming them and indulging in them. It is for this reason that these two nations consume alcohol as if it was water and indulge heavily in gambling as well. In contrast to this, the Holy Qur’an categorically prohibited alcohol, which is the mother of all vicious and atrocious things. This is a matter of pride for the Holy Qur’an that it alone definitely forbade alcohol—the same atrocious substance about which all of Europe now grieves and wails over—and forbade gambling in the same manner.[12]

A study of the Bible further shows that not only does it fail to forbid alcohol consumption, but it also gives alcohol a certain significance that is found in no other book, let alone religious scripture. In John Chapter 2, Verses 1 to 11, we find that the very first miracle ever performed by Jesusas and attributed to him was that of the creation of wine from water. It was due to this miracle of creating wine that people first began believing in him. Wine is also biblically regarded as a concomitant of joy (Psalm 104:14-15 and Ecclesiastes 9:7) and its use in common ceremonies such as Mass, symbolising the blood of Christ, further demonstrates its significance. Hence, it is unsurprising to learn that even Christian clergy were prone to excessive drinking and some to even collapsing on pulpits.[13]

 The Last Supper revolves around the sharing of bread and wine. This reinforces the sacred connotations of alcohol within the Christian Faith. Copyright: (Accessed via Wiki Commons)

The Last Supper revolves around the sharing of bread and wine. This reinforces the sacred connotations of alcohol within the Christian Faith.
Copyright: (Accessed via Wiki Commons)

Although it is argued that drunkenness is a sin according to the Bible, the fact that Biblical scripture permits alcohol consumption paves the way to a hazardous habit which was not even practised by Prophet Jesusas himself.[14] The permissibility of alcohol can easily lead to a neglect of healthy limitations. The Promised Messiahas regarding the permissibility of alcohol in the Bible, writes, “When man is blinded by a bigoted and sinful life, he becomes unable to tell the difference between what is permissible and what is impermissible and renders all permissible things forbidden and all forbidden things permissible; and he does not hesitate to shun good deeds. Alcohol, which is the mother of all vain things, is permissible among the Christians but is definitely forbidden in our Shariah (Islamic Law) and is referred to as ‘the abomination of Satan’s handiwork’. Is there any priest who can show the impermissibility of alcohol consumption in the Bible? Rather, alcohol is thought to be so blessed that the first miracle of the Messiah (Jesusas) was the creation of wine; so why would they not be bold in its consumption? Perhaps even the most temperate of them drinks at least one bottle of brandy. Thus, the abundance of alcohol in England has given rise to new crimes.[15] It must be noted here that the Promised Messiahas argues the permissibility of alcohol from a Biblical perspective, which portrays Jesusas as a consumer of alcoholic drinks. However, the Promised Messiahas did not at all believe that Jesusas, a great prophet of God, consumed wine—rather he believed Jesusas to be sinless and someone who shunned the act of alcohol consumption.

Islam’s Stance on Alcohol Consumption

In contrast to Biblical scripture, the Holy Qur’an categorically forbids the consumption of alcohol. The wisdom behind Islam’s prohibition of alcohol is indeed worth reflection. In order to completely eradicate the consumption of alcohol, the Arab mentality that it was acceptable was first changed by Qur’anic teachings, thus everything else followed as a natural consequence of this change in attitude. Like the abolishment of slavery, where slaves were not only freed but were fully integrated into Islamic society and seen as intellectual equals, Islam’s teachings regarding alcohol struck at the very root of the problem and changed perceptions first. (Gradually advancing to a desired outcome, just like a car gradually picking up speed and merging onto a highway, is precisely why the implementation of Islamic injunctions was effective and lasting.)

The very first Qur’anic revelation mentioning khamr (wine) was revealed in the early Meccan period of Islam and is mentioned in Chapter 16, Verse 68: “And of the fruits of the date-palms and the grapes, whence you obtain intoxicating drink and wholesome food. Verily, in that is a Sign for a people who make use of their reason.[16,17]

This verse speaks about both the good and bad sustenance derived from the same source, i.e., dates and grapes. The wisdom in this Qur’anic revelation was to focus the attention of the Muslims toward intoxicating drinks and to allow them to reflect on the issue themselves. It was a subtle hint of the evils of such drinks, which is juxtaposed to the idea of “wholesome food.

Following this revelation, alcohol was prohibited in three stages with the following verses:

Allah first discouraged the believing Muslims from drinking wine, drawing to attention the fact that there was greater evil than benefit in intoxicants. Chapter 2, Verse 220 states, “They ask thee concerning wine and the game of hazard. Say: ‘In both there is great sin and also some advantages for men; but their sin is greater than their advantage…’”[18]

Next, Muslims were forbidden to pray whilst intoxicated. Chapter 4, Verse 44 states, “O ye who believe! Approach not Prayer when you are not in full possession of your senses, until you know what you say.[19] The fact that there were five prayers spread throughout the day (from before sunrise to after sunset), encouraged sincere Muslims to abandon the habit. Prayer was promoted and given precedence over drinking, because the Muslim Salat (obligatory prayer) is fundamentally a purifying experience that safeguards one from committing sin and acting unrighteously.[20]

Finally, alcohol consumption was deemed an abomination of Satan’s handiwork and was definitively and strictly forbidden. Chapter 5, Verses 91-92 state,O ye who believe! Wine and the game of hazard and idols and divining arrows are only an abomination of Satan’s handiwork. So shun each one of them that you may prosper. Satan desires only to create enmity and hatred among you by means of wine and the game of hazard, and to keep you back from the remembrance of Allah and from Prayer. But will you keep back?[21]

The Wisdom of the Islamic Prohibition of Alcohol

As stated earlier, the reason that Islam successfully eradicated alcohol was that it changed the prevalent perceptions of alcohol at the time. Then, when the time came to forbid it completely, it was done in a gradual manner so that it could be successfully implemented. Such a radical change in attitudes prior to the implementation of scriptural injunctions is not found in any other religion, except Islam. Had the first revelation of the Qur’an been: ‘Do not drink,’ it would have been ignored and ineffective. Regarding this exact scenario, Hazrat ‘A’ishahra states, “When people embraced Islam, the verses regarding legal and illegal things were revealed. If the first thing to be revealed was: ‘Do not drink alcoholic drinks,’ people would have said, ‘We will never leave alcoholic drinks,’ and if there had been revealed, ‘Do not commit illicit sexual intercourse,’ they would have said, ‘We will never give up illicit sexual intercourse.’”[22] Therefore, as the Qur’anic commentator, Imam Fakhr al-Din Razi states, “The wisdom behind prohibition being revealed in this order was that Allah knew the people had a close affinity with drinking wine. Thus, He knew that had He prohibited it all at once, it would have been very difficult for them (to conform to the prohibition).[23]

Thus, there is much wisdom to be found in the methodology employed by Islam in order to implement a new law. In addition to this methodology, the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa also warned believers of the evils of intoxication. Hesa is reported to have stated, “Wine (alcohol) is the mother of all sins, and whosoever drinks it, Allah will not accept his prayers for a period of forty days; and if such a one dies while there is alcohol in his stomach, he dies a death of ignorance.[24]

All alcohol consumption is prohibited by Islamic law, although there has been a tradition of drinking wine in some Islamic areas, including Persia. This image is of a 17th Century Persian woman pouring wine and is taken from a wall painting inside the Chehel Sotoun Palace. (Accessed via Wiki Commons)

All alcohol consumption is prohibited by Islamic law, although there has been a tradition of drinking wine in some Islamic areas, including Persia. This image is of a 17th Century Persian woman pouring wine and is taken from a wall painting inside the Chehel Sotoun Palace.
(Accessed via Wiki Commons)

In order to completely and wholly purify society of intoxicants, it was necessary to forbid even the smallest amounts of alcohol. It is a natural phenomenon that those who abuse drugs and intoxicants begin with small amounts and then, due to a lack of self-control and satisfaction with smaller amounts, they require larger quantities to sustain intoxication—eventually becoming addicted. In order to combat this natural phenomenon, we find that the Holy Prophetsa stated, “Every intoxicant is unlawful and whatever causes intoxication in large amounts, a small amount of it is (also) unlawful.[25] Just recently, medical analyses have concluded that even small amounts of alcohol are detrimental to health. Dame Sally Davies, the Chief Medical Officer for England, published a report stating that, “Drinking any level of alcohol regularly carries a health risk,” and that even the smallest amounts of alcohol can increase the risks of cancer and other illnesses.[26]  Consequently, all doors to intoxication were closed and remained with regards to the ruling of alcohol consumption.

However, Islam does not disregard the fact that alcohol has beneficial properties. The Holy Qur’an acknowledges the benefits of both alcohol and gambling by stating that, “there is great sin and also some advantages for men; but their sin is greater than their advantage.[27] Thus, Islam acknowledges that alcohol has beneficial properties but since its harms outweigh its benefits, it is deemed unlawful. Furthermore, it must be remembered that Islam is a religion of moderation and although alcohol consumption is prohibited, the use of alcohol in medicines is permitted. In fact, Muslim alchemist and scholar Muhammad ibn Zakariyya Al-Razi, who is generally credited with the discovery of ethanol (pure alcohol), was “the first physician to systematically use alcohol in his practice as a physician.[28] After the discovery of ethanol, alcohol was refined and used by Persians in its distilled form as a painkiller and an anaesthetic.[29] Today, it is commonly used as a solvent in homeopathic medicines by Muslims and non-Muslims alike.

Did Islam Successfully Eradicate Alcohol?

The question arises whether or not Islam successfully implemented the prohibition of alcohol. To answer this, we find Ahadith (sayings of the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa) which demonstrate that not only was Islam able to successfully purge society of alcohol consumption, but Muslims abandoned it instantaneously, the very moment it was forbidden. Hazrat Anas bin Malikra narrates an incident regarding the day alcohol was finally prohibited: “I was serving Abu ‘Ubaida, Abu Talha and Ubai bin Ka’b with a drink prepared from ripe and unripe dates. Then somebody came to them and said, ‘Alcoholic drinks have been prohibited.’ (On hearing that) Abu Talha said, ‘Get up, O Anas, and pour it out!’ So I poured it out.[30]

The prohibition of alcohol by the divinely- guided Holy Prophet of Islamsa caused a revolution in Madinah. Here, alcohol was immediately poured away in the streets and Muslims immediately abstained from its consumption. No secular campaign to ban alcohol has ever been as e ective. King Abdulaziz Public Library. (Accessed via Wiki Commons)

The prohibition of alcohol by the divinely-guided Holy Prophet of Islamsa caused a revolution in Madinah. Here, alcohol was immediately poured away in the streets and Muslims immediately abstained from its consumption. No secular campaign to ban alcohol has ever been as effective.
King Abdulaziz Public Library. (Accessed via Wiki Commons)

It is said that upon the announcement of the prohibition of alcohol, so much alcohol was poured away that the streets of Madinah became rivers or streams of wine. Alcohol consumption was forever abandoned by the society that Islam created. In a day or two, the entire city of Madinah became abstinent and the greatest campaign that had ever been launched against alcohol consumption was brought to fruition. Indeed, this was a great demonstration of the degree of faith and conviction of the early Muslims, who instantly abandoned a habit that had been inherent in their society for generations. It is worthy to note that at the time of prohibition, Muslims were not coerced into abandoning the habit rather it was their own conviction and faith alone that made them willingly give up alcohol consumption forever. It is for this reason that wherever Islam spread and became the dominant religion, alcohol consumption was purged from those lands. Professor of History at the University of North Florida, David Courtwright writes, “The rise of Islam, which condemned wine as an abomination devised by Satan, discouraged viticulture (cultivation of grapevines) in North Africa and the Middle East, but winemaking and drinking flourished in medieval Europe.[31]

To further answer this question, it must be known that the potency of Islamic teaching and the positive revolutions it can create within societies, is not merely recognised by Muslims. In his book Civilization on Trial, British historian Arnold J. Toynbee writes, “We can, however, discern certain principles of Islam which, if brought to bear on the social life of the new cosmopolitan proletariat, might have important salutary effects on ‘the great society’ in a nearer future. Two conspicuous sources of danger, one psychological and the other material, in the present relations of this cosmopolitan proletariat with the dominant element in our modern Western society are race consciousness and alcohol; and in the struggle with each of these evils the Islamic spirit has a service to render which might prove, if it were accepted, to be of high moral and social value.[32]

Toynbee goes on to state that the Islamic spirit allowed tropical regions such as Central Africa and Indonesia to be entirely cleansed of alcohol consumption: “This spirit may be expected to manifest itself in many practical ways; and one of these manifestations might be a liberation from alcohol, which was inspired by religious conviction and which was therefore able to accomplish what could never be enforced by the external sanction of an alien law. Here, then, in the foreground of the future, we can remark two valuable influences which Islam may exert upon the cosmopolitan proletariat of a Western society that has cast its net round the world and embraced the whole of mankind; while in the more distant future we may speculate on the possible contributions of Islam to some new manifestation of religion.[33]

Final Thoughts

The adverse effects of alcoholism, if anything, have shown that the teachings of Islam are full of wisdom and benefit and can indeed be implemented to positively reform nations. Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmadas, the Promised Messiah and Founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community states, “Many times it happens that if a certain thing is not widespread enough, then its effects cannot be known. Take for instance the prevalence of alcohol nowadays in places like Europe—if this prevalence did not occur, then how could its negative effects become manifest, from which the world today seeks refuge? And by its prevalence, the beauty of Islam and the Messengersa of Islam is revealed, who stopped this vice and deemed it unlawful.[34]

Today, alcohol consumption and its detrimental effects on society has caused widespread unrest and this unrest is expressive of a desire for reform. In the midst of such restlessness, the religion of Islam suggests a solution to this crisis and stands as a golden example of how society can successfully be freed of the shackles of alcoholism forever.

About the Author: Aizaz Khan has completed a seven-year missionary training course from Jamia Ahmadiyya Canada, the missionary training university of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in Canada. He completed his dissertation on the topic of “The Impact of Alcohol and Gambling on Society.” As part of his training, he has served the community in Benin, West Africa for a short period. He is an aspiring writer and host of MTA Canada’s program, “Roots to Branches.”

 

Endnotes

  1. Mark E. Rose M.A. and Cheryle J. Cherpital, Alcohol: Its History, Pharmacology and Treatment (Center City, MN: Hazelden, 2011), 45.
  2. “Alcohol Linked to 75,000 U.S. Deaths a Year,” NBC News, accessed January 14, 2016, http://www.nbcnews.com/id/6089353/ns/health-addictions/t/alcohol-linked-us-deaths-year/.
  3. “CDC – Fact Sheets-Alcohol Use And Health – Alcohol,” accessed January 14, 2016, http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/fact-sheets/alcohol-use.htm.
  4. “Alcohol Facts and Statistics.” National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Mar. 2015. Web. 8 Dec. 2015, http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/alcohol-facts-and-statistics.
  5. “Three in 10 American Adults Have a Drinking Problem: Study.” NY Daily News, 8 June 2015, http://www.nydailynews.com/life-style/health/10-american-adults-drinking-problem-study-article-1.2250854.
  6. “Alcohol Facts and Statistics.” National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Mar. 2015. Web. 8 Dec. 2015, http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/alcohol-facts-and-statistics.
  7. Jeffrey A. Miron, and Jeffrey Zwiebel. “Alcohol Consumption during Prohibition.” The American Economic Review 81.2 (1991): 242-47, 6 August 2014. http://www.nber.org/papers/w3675.pdf.
  8. Edward Behr, Nick Triggle Health correspondent, “Alcohol Limits Cut to Reduce Health Risks,” BBC News, accessed January 14, 2016, http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-35255384.
  9. Eric Burns, Spirits Of America: A Social History Of Alcohol (Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press, 2004).
  10. Mark Thornton, “Alcohol Prohibition Was a Failure,” Cato Institute, July 17, 1991, http://www.cato.org/publications/policy-analysis/alcohol-prohibition-was-failure.
  11. Amy Mittelman, Brewing Battles: A History of American Beer (New York: Algora Publishing, 2008), 17.
  12. Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmadas, Chashma-e-Ma’arifat (Urdu), Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 23, p. 267.
  13. William Rorabaugh, Alcoholic Republic: An American Tradition (Oxford University Press, 1979).
  14. The Holy Bible, Ephesians-5:18 and Galatians-5:21.
  15. Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmadas, Al-Hakm, June 17th 1903, Vol. 7, p. 17.
  16. Fakhr al-Din Muhammad ibn Umar Razi, Al-Tafsir Al-Kabir, Vol. 6 (Beirut, Lebanon: Dar-ul-Fikr, 1981), 43.
  17. Holy Qur’an, Surah Al-Nahl, Verse 68.
  18. Holy Qur’an, Surah Al-Baqarah, Verse 220.
  19. Holy Qur’an, Surah Al-Nisa, Verse 44.
  20. Holy Qur’an, Surah Al-‘Ankabut, Verse 46.
  21. Holy Qur’an, Surah Al-Ma’idah, Verses 91-92.
  22. Sahih Bukhari, Kitab Fadail-ul-Qur’an, Baab Ta’leef-il-Qur’an (compilation of the Holy Qur’an)
  23. Fakhr al-Din Muhammad ibn Umar Razi, Al-Tafsir Al-Kabir, Vol. 6 (Beirut, Lebanon: Dar-ul-Fikr, 1981), 43.
  24. Ahadith ‘an shuyukh abi Muhammad ba’labaki, Hadith No. 43.
  25. Sunan Ibn Majah, Kitab-ul-Ashribah, Book 30, No. 3392.
  26. Nick Triggle, “Alcohol Limits Cut to Reduce Health Risks,” BBC News, 8 Jan. 2016, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-35255384.
  27. Holy Qur’an, Surah Al-Baqarah, Verse 220.
  28. “Medical Science,” Tirunelveli Medical College, http://tvmc.ac.in/medicalscience_history/.
  29. Houchang D. Modanlou MD, A Tribute to Zakariya Razi (865 – 925 AD), An Iranian Pioneer Scholar. Archives of Iranian Medicine (n.d.): 673-77. Web. 4 Aug. 2014. p. 674. http://www.ams.ac.ir/AIM/NEWPUB/08/11/6/0019.pdf
  30. Sahih Bukhari, Kitab-ul-Ashribah, Book 74, No. 1.
  31. David T. Courtwright, Forces of Habit: Drugs and the Making of the Modern World (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2001), 10.
  32. Arnold Toynbee, Civilization on Trial (New York: Oxford University Press, 1948).
  33. Arnold Toynbee, Civilization on Trial (New York: Oxford University Press, 1948).
  34. Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmadas, Malfuzat, Vol. 3 (London, 1984), p. 405.

 

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