The Issue of the Age of Hazrat ‘A’ishah

No Comments | November 2012

Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad(ra) was one of the sons of the Promised Messiah(as). Born on April 20, 1893 he passed his matriculation in 1910 with distinction, and according to the wishes of the Promised Messiah(as), attained an MA in Arabic in 1916. A great religious scholar and prolific writer, his books and speeches are easily understandable by the average reader. Some of his important works include Siratul Mahdi (Life of the Mahdi), Silsila-e-Ahmadiyya (The Ahmadiyya community), Tabligh-e-Hidayat (Propagation of Guidance), Kalimutal Fasl (The Decisive Word) and Hamara Khuda (Our God). He also contributed countless articles to magazines and periodicals of the Ahmadiyya Muslim community, such as the daily Al-Fazl, and was Editor of The Review of Religions for many years. Sirat Khatamun Nabiyyin is his magnum opus; an outstanding biography of the Holy Prophet(saw), which includes insightful analysis and commentary on various aspects of his life. For the first time this book has been translated into English. The English rendering, “The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophets,” will be serialised in various parts in The Review of Religions.

The age of Hazrat A’ishahra, the blessed wife of the Holy Prophetsa, has been fiercely debated over the centuries. Numerous Western historians and writers allege that the Prophet Muhammadsa married Hazrat A’ishahra when she was at a very young age and thus object to the character of the Holy Prophetsa. However original sources or true historical facts are not researched or utilised. In this Special Edition we are skipping straight to featuring Chapter VI of  The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophets, Volume II. In this chapter the author undertakes perhaps one of the most extensive and comprehensive analyses into the debate surrounding the age of Hazrat A’ishahra. This is the first ever serialisation of the newly translated Volume II of Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra’s outstanding biography, Seerat Khatamun Nabiyyin, on the life and character of the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa.

Translated from the Urdu by Ayyaz Mahmood Khan

Rukhsatanah1 of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra – Month of Shawwal 2 A.H.

It has already been mentioned in Volume I of this book that after the demise of Hazrat Khadijahra, the Holy Prophetsa was tied in a bond of matrimony to ‘A’ishah Siddiqahra. This was in 10 Nabawi during the month of Shawwal.2 At the time, Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was seven years of age.3 However, even at the time, it seems that her growth and development had matured remarkably well; otherwise, there was no reason for Khaulah bint Hakimra, who had suggested this marriage, to consider her as being a suitable match for the Holy Prophetsa. In any case, she had not fully matured until then, and for this reason, although the Nikah4 had taken place, the Rukhsatanah was yet to take place and thus, according to local custom, she continued to reside with her parents. However, now, in the second year of Hijrah, after five years had elapsed since the announcement of her marriage she had fully matured at the age of twelve. As such, it was Hazrat Abu Bakrra himself who approached the Holy Prophetsa and requested for the Rukhsatanah to take place.5 Upon this, the Holy Prophetsa arranged for the dowery to be paid (in that era it was customary for the dowery to be paid in cash) and in the month of Shawwal 2 A.H., Hazrat ‘A’ishahra bid the home of her parents farewell and entered the household of the Holy Prophetsa.

In this day and age, the question of how old Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was at the time of her Rukhsatanah has become a bone of contention. In most books of history and Ahadith, the age of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra has been recorded to be nine or ten years. Even in Sahih Bukhari, a narration is related by Hazrat ‘A’ishahra herself that on the occasion of her Rukhsatanah she was only nine years of age. It is on the basis of this very narration that many historians have mentioned an age of nine years.6 However, in contrast to this, by varying methods of deductions, some modern-day research scholars have attempted to establish her age as being fourteen, or even sixteen years of age. Although we do not agree with the opinion of these modern-day research scholars, a study of the circumstances reveals that the notion of her being nine years of age is also erroneous. Rather, as we have mentioned above, at the time of her Rukhsatanah, it is proven that Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was a full twelve years of age, or nearly twelve years of age. In actuality, the early scholars have misjudged the entire issue because they have considered the nine-year approximation of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra, which has been recorded in authentic Ahadith, as being completely definite and categorical, and have thus, not directed their attention to anything else; although every sensible individual can understand that for a narration to be authentic is one thing, and for an approximation to be correct is quite the other. In other words, although the narrations in which the estimate of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra as being nine years of age at the time of her Rukhsatanah may well be authentic in terms of narration, this estimate of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra in itself may be incorrect, as many a time, the estimates of people with respect to their own age prove to be inaccurate. In contrast, as for those people who have attempted to undertake an independent study considering the nine-year notion as being incorrect, the mistake which they have committed is that by abandoning the straight and simple route for research, they have employed such a complicated method, that a person’s heart is left unsatisfied. Any intelligent individual would concur that the most correct and easy method by which the age of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra may be discerned is to determine her date of birth on the one hand and the date of her Rukhsatanah on the other. After the specification of both these dates, no room for any uncertainty or doubt remains as to her age at the time of the Rukhsatanah. First we take up the question of her birth. Ibni Sa‘d has recorded a narration in Tabaqat that:

“Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was born in the beginning of 4 Nabawi.”7

With regards to the birthdate of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra, except for this narration, no other specific narration from any book of the early historians has crossed my eye; nor has any narration been related in any book of Hadith. Hence, the date of birth has been easily determined, and it is the beginning of 4 Nabawi.

Now we take up the second question which relates to the date of her Rukhsatanah. In this respect, there is undoubtedly a disagreement in narrations. In various narrations, the date which has been recorded is Shawwal 1 A.H. and in others, Shawwal 2 A.H. However, if one contemplates, the latter narration proves to be more correct. The actual source of the narration which suggests Shawwal 1 A.H. is Ibni Sa‘d, who has traced this narration to Hazrat ‘A’ishahra through a chain of narrators.8 Most historians have taken this narration of Ibni Sa‘d as a basis and declared the date of Rukhsatanah as being Shawwal 1 A.H. However, although Ibni Sa‘d is trustworthy in himself, in this narration, one narrator from among its narrators is Waqidi, with regards to whom scholars are almost at a consensus that he was untrustworthy and unreliable – as a matter of fact, he was a liar.9 Hence, the foundation of a historic event cannot be placed merely on this narration of Waqidi, especially when it contradicts other narrations. Contrary to this, ‘Allamah Nawawi, ‘Allamah ‘Aini and Qastalani as well as various other scholars have declared the narration of Shawwal 2 A.H. to be authentic and worthy of precedence.10 As for ‘Allamah Nawawi, he has written very clearly and with great emphasis that in comparison to this narration, the narration of Shawwal 1 A.H. is weak and worthy of being disregarded.11 Hence, there is no reason to disregard a more solid view merely on the basis that most historians have followed the narration of Shawwal 1 A.H. Moreover, in actuality, the only reason most historians have given regard to this narration of Waqidi is because it is in greater harmony with the nine-year estimate, which has been mentioned in authentic Ahadith. Hence, a scholar as great as Zarqani, clearly writes that the narration of Shawwal 2 A.H., cannot be accepted because this results in an age which is greater than nine years.12 However, when the age itself and the narrations which relate to it are under discussion, it is false to assume that a particular narration is correct. Furthermore, as we have mentioned above, to consider the nine-year approximation as being incorrect does not necessarily mean that the narrations which state this are false in themselves. Then it is strange that at another place.13 ‘Allamah Zarqani himself has given precedence to the statement of Shawwal 2 A.H. In these circumstances, the narration of Shawwal 1 A.H., cannot be considered as being worthy of acceptance in comparison to the narration of Shawwal 2 A.H. The reality appears to be that the Rukhsatanah of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra took place in Shawwal 2 A.H.

Now, when the date of birth and date of the Rukhsatanah have been determined, it is no difficult task to deduce an age. This remains to be a basic question of mathematics, which can be calculated even by a child. Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was born in the beginning of 4 Nabawi and the migration of the Holy Prophetsa took place in Rabi‘ul-Awwal 14 Nabawi.14 In this manner, up until the migration, the age of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra proves to be a few months over ten years. After the migration, which took place in Rabi‘ul-Awwal 1 A.H., up until Shawwal 2 A.H., when the Rukhsatanah of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra took place, there is a period which equates to a little under two years. By adding both of these periods together, we acquire the very same result of twelve years, which is exactly what we stated in the beginning. According to Ibni Sa‘d if the Rukhsatanah is accepted as having taken place in the first year of migration, even still this period equals eleven years and not nine or ten years. This is a mathematical calculation in comparison to which no approximate guess can be accepted.

The question which now remains is why Hazrat ‘A’ishahra has related her own age as being nine years in numerous Ahadith. The answer to this is that we do not label these narrations as being false. In other words, we accept the opinion of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra that she was nine years of age on the occasion of her Rukhsatanah. However, invariably, this view was merely an estimate, not definite. This is nothing strange because any individual can understand that at times, a mistake may be committed by people in estimating ages. Therefore, if the mathematical calculation deduced from the date of birth and date of Rukhsatanah do not result in the age of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra as being nine years, then the narration of nine-years cannot be accepted merely due to an estimate made by Hazrat ‘A’ishahra that she was nine-years of age at the time of her Rukhsatanah. Albeit, if the birthdate of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra has been reported to be something other than the beginning of 4 Nabawi in an authentic Hadith, or the date of her Rukhsatanah is established as being something other than Shawwal 2 A.H., then no doubt these narrations would be worthy of acceptance, and the age of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra would be calculated on this basis. However, a mathematical result cannot be rejected merely on the basis of an estimation or idea even though it may have been reported in an authentic Hadith.

This is a fundamental discussion which we have presented at this instance. However, the reality is that even if the narrations which contain these estimates are thoroughly analysed, ultimately, the result proves to be the same as what we have mentioned above, i.e., at the time of her Rukhsatanah, the age of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was twelve, not nine. In order to understand this, it is important to note that in actuality, Hazrat ‘A’ishahra has not only stated her approximate age at the time of her Rukhsatanah, rather, she has also reported her approximate age at the time of her Nikah along with this as well. Both of these estimates have been recorded in the books of Ahadith and history. As such, the statement of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra has been oft-related that she was six or seven years of age at the time of her Nikah and at the time of her Rukhsatanah she was nine years of age. In some narrations the age at the Rukhsatanah has been reported to be ten years as well. Now according to basic principle, from among these two estimates, we should consider the first estimate, which relates to the time of her Nikah as being more correct – the reason being that this estimate relates to a younger age and a relatively lesser chance of there being an error exists with respect to an estimate relating to a younger age. Secondly, since this was the very first estimate, it is to be considered as being the actual one, and those estimates which relate to subsequent ages are to be considered as being subordinate to this estimate and not independent estimates. Hence, in the discussion of estimates, the actual foundation must be placed on the first estimate, which relates to the age at the time of the Nikah and in which an age of six or seven years has been mentioned. Now when we perform a mathematical calculation in order to discern the age at the Rukhsatanah, the same twelve year age is established, not nine or ten years. However, before presenting this mathematical calculation it is necessary to reconcile the mutual discrepancy between six years and seven years. It has already been mentioned that in various narrations, the age at the time of marriage has been recorded as being six years, whereas in other narrations an estimate of seven years has been reported. Both these types of narrations are found in books of Ahadith as well as in books of history. The narration of seven years has been related particularly in Sahih Muslim and Nasa’i15, Ibni Hisham16, Ibni Sa‘d17 and Tabari18. In contrast, the narration of six years has been related in all these books, with the exception of Sirat Ibni Hisham, and in addition to this, the narration of six years has been related in Bukhari as well. Now we must look to see which narrations are worthy of preference from the two types mentioned above. Any individual who possesses even the slightest knowledge of the Science of Narration would concur that as far as the mere authenticity of a narration is concerned, both types of narrations are absolutely authentic and reliable, and we cannot reject either of them, deeming one to be false. As such, it must be accepted that it was Hazrat ‘A’ishahra herself who mentioned these two varying estimates at different occasions. In other words, at times she has related her age as being six years and at times, seven years; sometimes she has mixed both estimates to state that on the occasion of her marriage, she was six or seven years of age. Hence, in terms of Riwayat19, there is no difference whatsoever, but in terms of Dirayat20, if one contemplates the estimate of seven years must be given preference. For it is a general practice that until the year of a person’s age has fully elapsed, the year below is always mentioned, and the time remaining for the completion of the following year is ignored. The next year is only mentioned when it has fully elapsed, or is so close to completion that practically it can be considered as having fully elapsed. Hence, with respect to the age of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra, the mention of six years in certain narrations and seven years in others, categorically demonstrates that on the occasion of her Nikah, the age of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra had passed the six year mark and reached so close to seven, that general expression permitted the use of seven years to describe her age. Due to a very minute time left in her becoming seven years of age, which was almost insignificant, she would refer to herself as being six years, otherwise, she was practically seven years of age. Therefore, it is by this consideration that some historians have altogether abandoned the mention of six years and have only mentioned seven years. For example, Ibni Hisham21 has not even mentioned six years, and has only alluded to the seven year estimate. In contrast, I have not come across any authentic book of history, which alludes to the six year estimate alone. Then, where the author of Sirat-e-Halabiyyah has referred to the wives of the Holy Prophetsa, he has only mentioned the age of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra as being seven years and has made no mention of six years.22 Whilst alluding to the Nikah of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra, both ages have been mentioned, but he has clearly written that the narration of seven years is more correct.23 In these circumstances, although both types of narrations are correct in terms of Riwayat, but in terms of Dirayat, there can be no room for doubt or uncertainty that at the time of her Nikah, the age of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was so close to seven, that she was seven years of age as it were.

Now that it has been proven that on her Nikah, Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was seven years of age, the subsequent calculation is not a difficult one. It has already been mentioned that the marriage24 of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra took place in Shawwal 10 Nabawi25 and this is the date which is accepted by most historians. In other words, in Shawwal 10 Nabawi, Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was seven years of age, or very close. After this, the migration took place in Rabi‘ul-Awwal 14 Nabawi.26 In this manner, the time between the marriage and the migration equates to three years and a few months, and at the time of migration, the age of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra is established as being ten years and some months. After this, we now ascertain the time period between the migration and Rukhsatanah. As such, it is accepted that the migration took place in Rabi‘ul-Awwal and for this reason, the first year after migration was nine and a half months. Then, since the Rukhsatanah took place in Shawwal 2, the second year was also nine and a half months. If both of these time periods are added, we find that the era between the migration and Rukhsatanah equates to nineteen months, i.e., one year and seven months. If this is added to the period prior to migration, the total turns out to be the very same twelve years, which we have proven from another angle. In summary, irrespective of whether we perform the calculation according to the estimate of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra or whether we do so based on her date of birth, in both cases, the result is that on the occasion of her Rukhsatanah, Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was twelve years of age and not nine years.

Most definitely, the belief of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra that she was nine years of age at the time is based on an incorrect estimate or calculation. It seems that when Hazrat ‘A’ishahra ignored the remaining months until the start of the following year and estimated her age as being six years, she did not take into account the period in between thereafter when performing her calculation, and roughly estimated her own age as perhaps being nine years at the time of her Rukhsatanah, and therefore, this idea firmly took root in her heart. In addition to this, until then, a calendar system had not yet become customary and the Hijri calendar system was yet to be officially devised and formulated. Furthermore, the time period between the marriage and Rukhsatanah was spread across two different categories of years (i.e., the Nabawi years and Hijri years). It is plausible, therefore, that Hazrat ‘A’ishahra perhaps committed a mistake in calculation by an oversight, and then this incorrect notion became so deeply rooted in her heart that for the rest of her life thereafter, she never happened to take notice of this miscalculation. However, in any case, if it is correct that Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was seven years of age, or around this age, when her Nikah took place, the estimate of her being nine years of age at the time of her Rukhsatanah cannot be correct in any case. This is a question of mathematics, which cannot be proven wrong by any other argument. In summary, irrespective of which angle this issue is analysed from, the age of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra proves to be twelve, or close to this, at the time of her Rukhsatanah. Moreover, if the date of her Rukhsatanah is declared to be Shawwal 1 A.H., even still her age is established as being eleven years. Hence, the approximation of nine years is incorrect and inaccurate.

However, hypothetically, even if the age of nine years is accepted as being correct, there is still no point of objection, because it is not out of the ordinary for a girl to mature at the age of nine or ten years in a country like Arabia. Even in our own country, India, some girls who possess extraordinary faculties of development mature at an age of ten years. In actuality, the age of maturity depends primarily on weather and climate, food and the surrounding environment. In colder countries, and especially in such countries where hot spices are used in foods to a lesser degree, girls generally mature at a later age. As such, in England and other such countries, on average, the age of maturity is eighteen years, and girls are generally married at an age of twenty years; rather, in many cases, at an even older age than this. However, in our country, if at the age of twenty a girl is still sitting unmarried, people generally begin to raise fingers, alleging that there must be something wrong with her and this is why she has not been able to find a match yet. The reason being that here, the age of maturity is thirteen to fourteen years, on average. Since the country of Arabia is even hotter and dryer than India, the average age of maturity is even lesser than that of India, and many girls can be found who reach the age of maturity at nine or ten. In these circumstances, for Hazrat ‘A’ishahra to mature at the age of nine or ten years and become fit for her Rukhsatanah cannot be considered strange at all; especially if it is taken into account that Hazrat ‘A’ishahra possessed faculties of development which were higher than average, as Sir William Muir has also accepted in his book.27

In any case, Hazrat ‘A’ishahra had now fully matured. At the time, the mother of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was residing in the suburbs of Madinah in a place named As-Sunh. The women from among the Ansar gathered there and adorned Hazrat ‘A’ishahra for her Rukhsatanah. Then, the Holy Prophetsa went there himself, after which Hazrat ‘A’ishahra bid her home farewell and entered the household of the Holy Prophetsa.28 The dowery was set at 500 dirhams,29 or in light of various narrations 400 dirhams,30 i.e., 100 Rs. more or less, which was paid in cash at the time of the Rukhsatanah.31

From among all the wives of the Holy Prophetsa, Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was the only one who was unmarried prior to marrying the Holy Prophetsa.32 The rest were either widows or divorced and Hazrat ‘A’ishahra would at times, count this unique aspect as being one of her distinctions. At the time of the Rukhsatanah of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra, the Holy Prophetsa was approximately fifty-five years of age. Taking into account the young age of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra, the Holy Prophetsa would treat her very lovingly and take special care of her emotions. As such, on one occasion when some Abyssinian swordsman began to demonstrate an acrobatic spectacle of lances in the presence of the Holy Prophetsa and his Companions, the Holy Prophetsa instructed them to show their demonstration in the veranda of the Masjid-e-Nabawi, and held Hazrat ‘A’ishahra himself standing along the wall of his residence, whilst shielding her from the public, so that she too could enjoy their acrobatic display; until Hazrat ‘A’ishahra did not become content of this military demonstration herself, the Holy Prophetsa continued to accompany her.33 On another occasion, the Holy Prophetsa raced Hazrat ‘A’ishahra. On the first occasion, Hazrat ‘A’ishahra managed to outstrip the Holy Prophetsa, but after some time, when the Holy Prophetsa raced her again, she was left behind, upon which the Holy Prophetsa smiled and said, “There you are ‘A’ishah, now the debt has been repaid.”34 At times, when some of the friends of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra would gather in her home, and amuse themselves by singing innocent couplets the Holy Prophetsa would not object in the least. As a matter of fact, on one occasion, when Hazrat Abu Bakrra saw this and attempted to slightly reprimand the girls, the Holy Prophetsa stopped him saying, Abu Bakr, let it be. Today is the day of ‘Id and girls enjoy entertaining themselves.But when the Holy Prophetsa turned to the other side, Hazrat ‘A’ishahra made an indication to the girls herself and saw them off.35

Despite her young age, the intelligence and memory of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra was absolutely remarkable, and under the education and training of the Holy Prophetsa she developed astonishingly at a most extraordinary pace. In actuality, this was the very purpose of the Holy Prophetsa in bringing her to his home at such a young age; so that he could train her from a tender age according to his wishes, and she could receive the longest possible opportunity to remain in his company; so that she could be made fit for the sensitive and magnificent work which fell upon the wife of a law-giving Prophet. As such, the Holy Prophetsa succeeded in this purpose and Hazrat ‘A’ishahra rendered such service in the reformation, education and training of the Muslim women, as is unparalleled in the history of the world. A very large and significant portion of the Ahadith of the Holy Prophetsa are based on the narrations of Hazrat ‘A’ishahra. As a matter of fact, the number of her narrations alone reach a grand total of 2210.36 The level of her knowledge and wisdom and deep understanding of religion was such that the most eminent Companions accepted her as an authority and would benefit from her grace. It is even related in narrations that after the Holy Prophetsa, the companions were not confronted with a single scholarly issue, for which Hazrat ‘A’ishahra did not have an answer.37 There is a statement of ‘Urwah bin Zubairra on record that:

“In knowledge of the Holy Qur’an, in knowledge of the law of inheritance, in knowledge of lawful and unlawful things, in the science of jurisprudence, in poetry, in medicine, in knowledge of the narrations of Arabia, and in the science of genealogy, I have not seen a greater scholar than ‘A’ishahra.”38

In virtue and contentment, she possessed such a great status that on one occasion, she happened to receive a sum of 100,000 dirhams from somewhere, and before sunset, she had distributed the entirety of it in charity, even though she did not have anything to eat for that evening in her own home.39 It was due to these very praiseworthy attributes, which had begun to show their splendor even in the era of the Holy Prophetsa, that she was held especially dear by the Holy Prophetsa. At times, he would say, “From among all the people, ‘A’ishah is most beloved to me.”40 At another instance, the Holy Prophetsa said, “There have been many excellent models among men, but very few among the women.” Then the Holy Prophetsa named Asiyah, the wife of Pharaoh and Mary, the daughter of ‘Imran, then he continued by saying, “‘A’ishah possesses such superiority over the women, as Tharid, which is among the best foods of Arabia, possesses over other foods.”41 On one occasion, some of the other Azwaj-e-Mutahharat42 complained to the Holy Prophetsa about Hazrat ‘A’ishahra, but he remained silent. However, when his wives persisted, the Holy Prophetsa said:

“What shall I do with these complaints? All that I am aware of is that I do not receive revelation from my God in the quilt of any other wife, but I often receive this revelation in the quilt of ‘A’ishah”.43

Goodness gracious! How holy was the wife who was endowed with this distinction, and how holy was the husband whose criteria for domestic love was nothing other than sanctity and purity!

CHAPTER VI CONTINUES IN THE NEXT EDITION.

Endnotes

  1. Marriage – Refer to glossary for further details. (Publishers).
  2. Al-Isti‘abu Fi Ma‘rifatil-Ashab, by Abu ‘Umar Yusuf bin ‘Abdillah, Vol. 4, p. 436, ‘A’ishah bint Abi Bakr As-Siddiq, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon (2002).
  3. As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, by Abu Muhammad ‘Abdul-Malik bin Hisham, p. 891, Dhikru Azwajihisa Ummahatil-Mu’minin, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (2001).
  4. Formal announcement of marriage (Publishers).
  5. Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘Alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, by Allamah Shihabuddin Al-QasTalani, Vol. 4, p. 383, ‘A’ishah Ummul-Mu’minin, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996).
  6. Umdatul-Qari Sharhu Sahihil-Bukhari, by Imam Badruddin Abi Muhammad Mahmud bin Ahmad Al-‘Aini, Vol. 17, p. 50, Kitabu Manaqibil-Ansar, Babu Tazwijin-Nabisa ‘A’ishah, Hadith No. 3894, Daru Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (2003).
  7. At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, by Muhammad bin Sa‘d, Vol. 8, p. 283, Dhikru Azwaji Rasulillahisa / ‘A’ishah bint Abi Bakr As-Siddiq, Daru Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996).
  8. At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, by Muhammad bin Sa‘d, Vol. 8, p. 271, Dhikru Azwaji Rasulillahisa / ‘A’ishah bint Abi Bakr As-Siddiq, Daru Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996).
  9. Tahzibut-Tahzib, by Al-Imam Shihabuddin Abul-Fadl Ahmad bin Hajar Al-‘Asqalani, Vol. 7, pp. 366-368, Muhammad bin ‘Umar bin Al-Waqidi, First Edition, Da’iratul-Ma‘arifin-Niẓamiyyatil-Ka’inah, Hyderabad, Dakkan (1326 A.H.).
  10. * Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘Alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, Vol. 2, p. 194, Dhikrul-Mu’akhati Bainas-Sahabati Ridwanullahi ‘Alaihim Ajma‘in, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996).
    * Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘Alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, Vol. 4, p. 383, ‘A’ishah Ummul-Mu’minin, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996).
    * ‘Umdatul-Qari Sharhu Sahihil-Bukhari, by Imam Badruddin Abi Muhammad Mahmud bin Ahmad Al-‘Aini, Vol. 17, p. 51, Kitabu Manaqibil-Ansar, Babu Tazwijin-Nabisa ‘A’ishah, Hadith No. 3896, Daru Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (2003).
    * Tarikhul-Khamis Fi Ahwali Anfasi Nafis, by Husain bin Muhammad bin Hasan, Vol. 1, p. 357, Bina’uhusa Bi-‘A’ishah, Mu’assasatu Sha‘ban, Beirut.
  11. Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘Alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, Vol. 4, pp. 382-383, ‘A’ishah Ummul-Mu’minin, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996).
  12. Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘Alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, Vol. 4, pp. 382-383, ‘A’ishah Ummul-Mu’minin, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996).
  13. * Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘Alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, Vol. 2, pp. 357-358, Dhikru Tazwiji ‘Ali Bi-FaTimah Radiyallahu ‘Anhuma, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996).
    * Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘Alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, Vol. 4, p. 333, Fi Dhikri Auladihil-Kiram, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996).
  14. * Tarikhur-Rusuli Wal-Muluk (Tarikhut-Tabari), by Abu Ja‘far Muhammad bin Jarir AT-Tabari, Vol. 3, p. 5, Dhikrul-Waqtilladhi ‘Umila Fihit-Tarikh, Darul-Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon, Second Edition (2002).
    * Tarikhul-Khamis Fi Ahwali Anfasi Nafis, by Husain bin Muhammad bin Hasan, Vol. 1, p. 322, Al-MauTinul-Awwalu Fi Waqa’i‘is-Sanatil-Ula Minal-Hijrah, Mu’assasatu Sha‘ban, Beirut.
  15. Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘Alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, by Allamah Shihabuddin Al-QasTalani, Vol. 4, p. 383, ‘A’ishah Ummul-Mu’minin, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996).
  16. As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, by Abu Muhammad ‘Abdul-Malik bin Hisham, p. 891, Dhikru Azwajihisa Ummahatil-Mu’minin, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (2001).
  17. At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, by Muhammad bin Sa‘d, Vol. 8, p. 272, Dhikru Azwaji Rasulillahisa / ‘A’ishah bint Abi Bakr As-Siddiq, Daru Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996).
  18. Tarikhur-Rusuli Wal-Muluk (Tarikhut-Tabari), by Abu Ja‘far Muhammad bin Jarir AT-Tabari, Vol. 3, p. 9, Dhikru Ma Kana Minal-Umuril-Madhkurati Fi Awwali Sanatin Minal-Hijrah / KhuTbatu. Rasulillahisa Fi Awwali Jumu‘ah, Darul-Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon, Second Edition (2002).
  19. Narration (Publishers).
  20. Rationalisation (Publishers).
  21. As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, by Abu Muhammad ‘Abdul-Malik bin Hisham, p. 891, Dhikru Azwajihisa Ummahatil-Mu’minin, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (2001).
  22. As-Siratul-Halabiyyah (Insanul-‘Uyuni Fi Siratil-Amini Wal-Ma’mun), by ‘Allamah Abul-Farj Nuruddin ‘Ali bin Ibrahim bin Ahmad Al-Halabiyy, Vol. 3, p. 440, Babu Dhikri Azwajihi Wa Sararihisa, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (2002).
  23. As-Siratul-Halabiyyah (Insanul-‘Uyuni Fi Siratil-Amini Wal-Ma’mun), by ‘Allamah Abul-Farj Nuruddin ‘Ali bin Ibrahim bin Ahmad Al-Halabiyy, Vol. 1, p. 491, Babu Dhikri Wafati ‘Ammihi Abi Talib Wa Zaujatihisa Khadijah, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (2002).
  24. That is, the formal announcement of the marriage, after which the Holy Prophetsa and Hadrat ‘A’ishahra were contractually bound together in a tie of matrimony (Publishers).
  25. At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, by Muhammad bin Sa‘d, Vol. 8, p. 271, Dhikru Azwaji Rasulillahisa / ‘A’ishah bint Abi Bakr As-siddiq, Daru Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996).
  26. Tarikhur-Rusuli Wal-Muluk (Tarikhut-Tabari), by Abu Ja‘far Muhammad bin Jarir At-Tabari, Vol. 3, p. 5, Dhikrul-Waqtilladhi ‘Umila Fihit-Tarikh, Darul-Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon, Second Edition (2002).
  27. * The Life of Mahomet, by Sir William Muir, Chapter VI (Sawda and Ayesha), And is betrothed to Ayesha, p. 117, Published by Smith, Elder, & Co. London (1878).
    * The Life of Mahomet, by Sir William Muir, Chapter VI (Ayesha), Ayesha’s influence over him, p. 117, Published by Smith, Elder, & Co. London (1878).
  28. sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabu Manaqibil-Ansar, Babu Tazwijin-Nabisa ‘A’ishah, Hadith No. 3894.
  29. sahihul-Muslim, Kitabun-Nikah, Babus-sidaqi Wa Jawazi Kaunihi….., Hadith No. 3489.
  30. At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, by Muhammad bin Sa‘d, Vol. 8, p. 327, Dhikru Muhuri Nisa’in-Nabisa, Daru Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996).
  31. At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, by Muhammad bin Sa‘d, Vol. 8, p. 274, Dhikru Azwaji Rasulillahisa / ‘A’ishah bint Abi Bakr As-siddiq, Daru Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
  32. sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabun-Nikah, Babu Nikahil-Abkar, Hadith No. 5077
  33. sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabun-Nikah, Babu Husnil-Mu‘ashirati Ma‘al-Ahli, Hadith No. 5190.
  34. Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitabul-Jihad, Babun Fis-Sabqi ‘Alar-Rijuli, Hadith No. 2578.
  35. sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabul-‘Idain, Babul-Hirabi Wad-Daraqi Yaumal-‘Id, Hadith No. 949.
  36. Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘Alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, By Allamah Shihabuddin Al-QasTalani, Vol. 4, p. 389, ‘A’ishah Ummul-Mu’minin, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996).
  37. Sunan At-Tirmidhi, Kitabul-Manaqib, Babu Fadli ‘A’ishah, Hadith No. 3883.
  38. Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-ZarqaniAlal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, by Allamah Shihabuddin Al-QasTalani, Vol. 4, p. 389, ‘A’ishah Ummul-Mu’minin, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996).
  39. At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, by Muhammad bin Sa‘d, Vol. 8, p. 276, Dhikru Azwaji Rasulillahisa / ‘A’ishah bint Abi Bakr As-siddiq, Daru Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996).
  40. sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabu Fada’ili Ashabin-Nabisa, Bab 34, Hadith No. 3662.
  41. sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabu Fada’ili Ashabin-Nabisa, Babu Fadli ‘A’ishahra, Hadith No. 3769.
  42. Holy Wives of the Holy Prophetsa. (Publishers).
  43. sahihul-Bukhari, Kitabu Fada’ili Ashabin-Nabisa, Babu Fadli ‘A’ishahra, Hadith No. 3775.
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