The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophets(saw) – Part 16

No Comments | April 2012

Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad(ra) was one of the sons of the Promised Messiah(as). Born on April 20, 1893 he passed his matriculation in 1910 with distinction, and according to the wishes of the Promised Messiah(as), attained an MA in Arabic in 1916. A great religious scholar and prolific writer, his books and speeches are easily understandable by the average reader. Some of his important works include Siratul Mahdi (Life of the Mahdi), Silsila-e-Ahmadiyya (The Ahmadiyya community), Tabligh-e-Hidayat (Propagation of Guidance), Kalimutal Fasl (The Decisive Word) and Hamara Khuda (Our God). He also contributed countless articles to magazines and periodicals of the Ahmadiyya Muslim community, such as the daily Al-Fazl, and was Editor of The Review of Religions for many years. Sirat Khatamun Nabiyyin is his magnum opus; an outstanding biography of the Holy Prophet(saw), which includes insightful analysis and commentary on various aspects of his life. For the first time this book has been translated into English. The English rendering, “The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophets,” will be serialised in various parts in The Review of Religions.

Continued serialisation of the English rendering of Hadhrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad(ra)’s outstanding biography, Seerat Khatamun Nabiyyin, on the life and character of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(saw). In this section, the Holy Prophet(saw) has to tragically endure the demise of two of those closest to him, in quick succession. Also, featuring the start of Chapter VIII, ‘Expansion of Preaching’ featuring the Prophet(saw)’s journey to Ta’if.

Translated from the Urdu by Ayyaz Mahmood Khan

Demise of Hadhrat Khadijah(ra) and Abu Talib

A General shot of a desert valley in Saudi Arabia.

When the Holy Prophet(saw) came out of the Valley of Abu Talib, he was struck by two consecutive misfortunes. Hadhrat Khadijah(ra) and Abu Talib passed away, one after the other. Both of them were aged, and death is ordained for every individual. However, the demise of both of them so close to the era of their besiegement in the Valley of Abu Talib, strongly gives rise to the possibility that the insistent hardships of their imprisonment had a great role to play in their demise. It seems as if under the influence of constant severities, their health greatly deteriorated. While they were besieged, the thought of struggle kept their dispositions well-maintained, but as soon as they came out, the adversity of their besiegement brought forth its impact, and both of them fell victim to death, one after the other. On account of these consecutive grievances, the Holy Prophet(saw) named this year, that is, 10 Nabawi, the ‘Amul-Huzn, ‘The Year of Grievances’.[1] Abu Talib was like a father to the Holy Prophet(saw). He loved the Holy Prophet(saw) immensely and the Holy Prophet(saw) also loved him dearly. When Abu Talib was in his terminal illness, the Holy Prophet(saw) would regularly bless him with his presence. Thus, on one occasion, when his demise was near, the Holy Prophet(saw) went to visit him. At that time, Abu Jahl and other idolaters were also present. When the Holy Prophet(saw) sensed his approaching demise, he said, “Uncle! Merely utter the Kalimah Shahadah [Muslim declaration of faith] and on the Day of Resurrection, I shall intercede on your behalf.” On hearing this, Abu Jahl and the rest became apprehensive, and began to say to Abu Talib, “Will you forsake the religion of ‘Abdul-Muttalib?” and continued to persuade him in many ways, the outcome of which was that the last words heard of Abu Talib were that, “I die upon the religion of ‘Abdul-Muttalib.” When the Holy Prophet(saw) heard these words, he said in great anguish, “All right, I shall continue supplicating in the presence of my Lord for your forgiveness, except that I am prohibited from doing so.” But it was not long before the Holy Prophet(saw) was forbidden from doing so, and an injunction was revealed that it is unlawful to pray for the forgiveness of idolaters and disbelievers, instead, their matter should be left to God.[2]

There is another narration which might be true and it relates that upon his deathbed, Abu Talib said to the Chieftains of the Quraish that:

The Muslim Creed: ‘There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is His Messenger’

“O Party of the Quraish! Among the creation of Allah, you are a chosen people. God has given you great reverence. I advise that you treat Muhammad well, because amongst you, he is a man of the highest morals. He possesses distinction among the Arabs on account of his truthfulness and straightforwardness. If you ask the truth, he has brought a message to us which the tongue rejects but the heart accepts. I have stood by Muhammad a lifetime and have stepped forward to protect him in all times of difficulty, and if I receive more time, I shall continue to do so in the future as well. And O Quraish! I also advise you not to insist upon causing him grief, but help him and support him, for your betterment lies in this.”[3]

The last verse from Surah An-Najm (Chapter 53) of the Holy Qur’an embodies the Message that the Holy Prophet(saw) was commissioned to preach, ‘So prostrate yourselves before Allah, and worship Him.’

Shortly thereafter, Abu Talib passed away. The Holy Prophet(saw) was greatly hurt by his demise and since Abu Talib remained a supporter and protector to the Holy Prophet(saw) against the Quraish, by his demise, the position of the Holy Prophet(saw) became even more sensitive. At the time of his demise, which occurred in 10 Nabawi, Abu Talib was over eighty years of age.[4] Although Abu Talib held fast to polytheism during the whole of his life and also died in the same state, the Holy Prophet(saw) always considered him his father and demonstrated such a high model of love, loyalty, service, obedience, honour and respect, the likes of which cannot be found. On the other hand, Abu Talib always treated the Holy Prophet(saw) with an extreme level of protection and loyalty, and preferred putting himself in every type of difficulty, but did not leave the side of the Holy Prophet(saw). Where this treatment is evidence of his own graciousness and loyalty, it also proves that although he may have believed the Holy Prophet(saw) to be mistaken, on account of his polytheistic beliefs, he did not consider the Holy Prophet(saw) a liar or deceiver at all. He was a heartfelt believer of the excellent morals, truthfulness and sincerity of the Holy Prophet(saw). Therefore at this instance, Muir writes:

‘The sacrifices to which Abu Talib exposed himself and his family for the sake of his nephew, while yet incredulous of his mission, stamp his character as singularly noble and unselfish. They afford at the same time strong proof of the sincerity of Mohammad. Abu Talib would not have acted thus for an interested deceiver; and he had ample means of scrutiny.’[5]

“Jannatul Mu’alla” (Hajun) cemetery before 1925, where Hadhrat Khadijah(ra) was buried.

A few days after the demise of Abu Talib, Hadhrat Khadijah(ra) also passed away.[6] Khadijah(ra) had stood by the Holy Prophet(saw) in times of extreme grief and anguish. She loved the Holy Prophet(saw) and the Holy Prophet(saw) loved her immensely. For this reason, naturally, the Holy Prophet(saw) was exceedingly grieved at her demise. After her demise, whenever she was mentioned, the eyes of the Holy Prophet(saw) would become suffused in tears, and he would praise her often. He would say that, “Khadijah was among the best of the women in her era.”

Hadhrat ‘A’ishah(ra) narrates that:

‘The Holy Prophet(saw) would praise Hadhrat Khadijah(ra) so often, that I would begin to feel jealous of her, and I would say, “You mention Khadijah as if she was the only lady who was ever born in this world.” The Holy Prophet(saw) would respond, “O ‘A’ishah! She possessed great qualities and God gave me children from her as well.”’

Hence, the Holy Prophet(saw) would mention Hadhrat Khadijah(ra) with extreme love. If ever an animal, etc., was slaughtered in his home, the Holy Prophet(saw) would always send a portion to the friends of Hadhrat Khadijah(ra). At one occasion, the Holy Prophet(saw) was sitting in the home of Hadhrat ‘A’ishah(ra), when the sister of Hadhrat Khadijah(ra), Hallah bint Khuwailid, came to visit the Holy Prophet(saw). She asked permission to enter at the door. Hadhrat ‘A’ishah(ra) relates, “The Holy Prophet stood up restlessly saying, ‘the voice of Khadijah, it appears as if her sister Hallah has come.’”[7] In the Battle of Badr, when Abul-‘As, the son-in-law of the Holy Prophet(saw), who had not yet accepted Islam, was captured, his wife, in other words, Zainab(ra), the daughter of the Holy Prophet(saw), who still resided in Makkah, sent her necklace as a ransom. This was the same necklace which Hadhrat Khadijah(ra) gave to Zainab(ra) in her bride’s paraphernalia. When the Holy Prophet(saw) saw this necklace, he was reminded of the late Khadijah(ra) and his eyes filled with tears. The Holy Prophet(saw) said to his companions, “If you wish, return the reminiscence of Khadijah(ra) to her daughter.” They needed a single indication, and the necklace was immediately returned.[8] At the time of her demise, Hadhrat Khadijah(ra) was sixty-five years of age. She was buried in Makkah at a location known as Hajun. The Holy Prophet(saw) descended into her grave himself, but a funeral prayer was not offered, because at that time, the injunction pertinent to funeral prayer was not yet revealed.[9]

Adversity of the Holy Prophet Intensified

After the demise of Hadhrat Khadijah(ra) and Abu Talib, the Quraish of Makkah became bolder towards the person of the Holy Prophet(saw) and began to inflict severe hardships upon him.[10] Once, the Holy Prophet(saw) was walking on his way, when an ill-behaved person publicly threw filth upon the head of the Holy Prophet(saw). The Holy Prophet(saw) returned home in this state, and when one of his daughters saw this, she quickly fetched some water, washed his head, and began to weep bitterly. The Holy Prophet(saw) calmed her down and said, “Daughter, weep not, for Allah shall Himself protect your father and all these difficulties shall pass.”[11] Then, at another instance, the Holy Prophet(saw) was in prostration before God the Almighty in the courtyard of the Ka’bah, where a few Chieftains of the Quraish were gathered as well. Abu Jahl said, “At this time, if someone can muster the courage, throw the uterus of a camel upon Muhammad” Hence ‘Uqbah bin Abi Mu’it stood up and threw the uterus of a slaughtered camel, full of blood and filth, upon the back of the Holy Prophet(saw), and all of them burst into laughter. When Fatimatuz-Zahra learnt of this, she came running and removed this burden from her father’s shoulders. It was only then, that the Holy Prophet(saw) was able to lift his head from prostration. It is narrated, that once, the Holy Prophet called upon the chieftains of the Quraish by name, who were adamant on erasing and humiliating Islam, and prayed against them, seeking a verdict from God. The narrator states that, “Then I saw all of these people killed on the day of Badr, at the hands of the Muslims, polluting the air in the valley of Badr.[12]

( The next section after ‘Adversity of the Holy Prophet(saw) Intensified’ of the Life and Character of the Seal of Prophets was featured in the February 2012 Edition – see note at end of this article. Below we present the start of Chapter VIII )

VIII – EXPANSION OF PREACHING

Visits to the Tribes

During the days of Hajj, people would gather in Makkah from far and wide, and in the Ashhur-e-Hurum, very large assemblies would be held in significant numbers at ‘Ukaz, Majinnah, and Dhul-Majaz. From the start, it was a custom of the Holy Prophet(saw) to utilise such occasions to his advantage. He would visit the various encampments of the Arab tribes and would invite them to Islam.[13] However, until now, naturally, the attention of the Holy Prophet(saw) was more directed towards the Quraish of Makkah. Nonetheless, during the days when the Quraish of Makkah had besieged the Muslims in the Valley of Abu Talib, the Holy Prophet(saw) began to turn his attention towards the other tribes of Makkah. As such, during the era of siege, in the peace of the Ashhur-e-Hurum, the Holy Prophet(saw) would especially visit the various tribes who had arrived for Hajj. He would regularly visit the assemblies at ‘Ukaz, etc. and preach the message of Islam. However, the Quraish of Makkah began to create hindrances in this preaching as well. They knew that for these tribes to become Muslim was almost as dangerous as the conversion of the Makkans themselves. As such, due to the opposition of the Quriash, that although the Holy Prophet(saw) visited various tribes at numerous occasions, and he would go to every camp presenting them with the invitation to Islam, there was no prospect of success.[14]

Pilgrims at Masjid Al-Haram, Makkah during the Hajj

Journey to Ta’if

When the ban was lifted, and the Holy Prophet(saw) found a sort of freedom in his movements, he decided to visit Ta’if and invite its people to Islam. Ta’if is a famous place situated forty miles to the south-east of Makkah. During this era, it was home to the Banu Thaqif. Putting aside the speciality of the Ka‘bah, Ta’if was recognised equal to Makkah and many eminent, influential and affluent people resided there. The people of Makkah themselves admitted to this importance of Ta’if. As such, it was the very Makkans who said: “Why has not this Qur’an from God been sent to some great man of Makkah or Ta’if?”[15]

The location of Ta’if in Saudi Arabia.

Therefore, in Shawwal of 10 Nabawi,[16] the Holy Prophet(saw) took the journey to Ta’if by himself.[17] On the authority of other narrations, Zaid bin Harithah(ra) also accompanied him.[18] Upon his arrival, the Holy Prophet(saw) remained there for ten days, and one after another he met with many chieftains, but like Makkah, it was not in the destiny of this city to accept Islam either. Therefore, all of them refused, and as a matter of fact they mocked the Holy Prophet(saw). At last, the Holy Prophet(saw) approached the grand chieftain of Ta’if, named ‘Abdu Yalail,[19] and invited him to Islam, but he also refused, rather, in a manner of mockery he said, “If you are truthful, then I have not the strength to speak to you, and if you are a liar, then to speak to you is useless.” Then, concerned that the youngsters of the city may become influenced by the Holy Prophet(saw), he said, “It is best that you leave this place, for there is nobody here who is willing to listen to you.” After that, this evil man had the miscreants of the city start off behind the Holy Prophet(saw). When he left the city, this rabble chased the Holy Prophet(saw) and began to bombard him with rocks, due to which the entire body of the Holy Prophet(saw) became drenched in blood. These people pursued the Holy Prophet(saw) for three miles, more or less, and cursed at him and threw stones at him continuously.

At a distance of three miles from Ta’if, there was an orchard, which belonged to a Chieftain of Makkah named ‘Utbah bin Rabi‘ah. The Holy Prophet(saw) took refuge in this orchard, and his ruthless enemies returned exhausted. Standing beneath a shadow, the Holy Prophet(saw) prayed before Allah in the following words:

“O My Lord, I complain to you of my helplessness, and my inability, and my helplessness before the people. O My God, You are the most merciful, for You are the guardian and protector of the feeble and helpless – You are my Lord. I seek refuge in the light of Your countenance. It is You who dispels all darkness and it is You who bestows the inheritance of favor in this world and in the next.”

At this time, ‘Utbah and Shaibah were in their garden. When they saw the Holy Prophet(saw) in this state, perhaps moved by emotions of near or far relations, or perhaps national responsibility, they sent the Holy Prophet(saw) a tray of grapes in the hand of their Christian slave named ‘Addas. The Holy Prophet(saw) took them and addressed ‘Addas saying, “Where are you from, and a follower of which religion?” “I am from Nineveh,” responded ‘Addas, “and a Christian.” The Holy Prophet(saw)  inquired, “The same Nineveh, which was home to the righteous servant of God, Jonah(as) son of Matthew?” “Yes,” responded ‘Addas, “but how are you aware of Jonah(as)?” “He was my brother,” said the Holy Prophet(saw), “for he was a prophet of Allah, and I am also a prophet of Allah.” Then the Holy Prophet(saw)  preached the message of Islam to him, which moved him greatly. In his passion of sincerity, he moved forward and kissed the hands of the Holy Prophet(saw). ‘Utbah and Shaibah observed this sight from afar; as such, when ‘Addas returned to them, they said, “What happened to you that you began to kiss the hands of this man? This man shall ruin your faith, while your religion is better than his.”[20]

In his book, Sir William Muir acknowledged the Holy Prophet(saw)’s bravery in travelling to Ta’if.

The Holy Prophet(saw) rested in this orchard for some time. He then departed from here and arrived at Nakhlah, which is situated at a distance of approximately one day’s journey from Makkah, and remained there for a few days. After this, the Holy Prophet(saw) departed and reached the mountain of Hira, and since the apparent failure at Ta’if entailed the possibility of the Makkans growing overly bold, the Holy Prophet(saw) sent word to Mut’im bin ‘Adiyy that I wish to enter Makkah, can you help me in this regard? Although Mut‘im was a firm disbeliever, his disposition possessed graciousness, and in times like these, it was against the nature of noble Arabs to refuse. For this reason, along with his sons and relatives, fully armed, they stood by the Ka‘bah, and sent word to the Holy Prophet(saw) that he may enter. The Holy Prophet(saw) entered and performed the tawaf [circumambulation] of the Ka‘bah, and along with Mut‘im and his children, escorted under the shadow of swords, the Holy Prophet(saw) entered his home. On the way, when Abu Jahl witnessed Mut‘im in this state, he was astonished and inquired, “Have you given Muhammad(saw) refuge, or have you become a follower?” Mut‘im responded, “I am only one to give refuge, not a follower.” Upon this Abu Jahl said, “Alright, then there is no problem.” Mut‘im died in a state of disbelief, but the Muslims were not ones to lose sight of rightly due value. Alluding to the gracious treatment of Mut‘im, Hassan bin Thabit(ra), who was practically the court-poet of the Holy Prophet(saw), said many passionate couplets in his praise, which have been vouchsafed in his collection to this day.[21] The journey to Ta’if was a special occurrence in the life of the Holy Prophet(saw). The details of this journey shed light on the lofty magnificence of the Holy Prophet(saw), his astronomical magnanimity, and his incomparable patience and steadfastness. As such, Sir William Muir writes:

‘There is something lofty and heroic in this journey of Mohammad to Al-Ta’if; a solitary man, despised and rejected by his own people, going boldly forth in the name of God, like Jonah to Nineveh, and summoning an idolatrous city to repent and support his mission. It sheds a strong light on the intensity of his belief in the divine origin of his calling.’[22]

It is mentioned in Hadith that on one occasion, it was inquired of the Holy Prophet(saw) by Hadhrat ‘A’ishah(ra), “Were you ever confronted by a day more difficult than the Battle of Uhud?” The Holy Prophet(saw) responded, “O ‘A’ishah(ra), your people have compelled me to confront times of severe adversity.” Then the Holy Prophet(saw) described the details of his journey to Ta’if and said:

“During my return from this journey, the Angel of the mountains came to me and said, “God has sent me to you, that if you so command, I may bring the two mountains of this valley together upon these people, and destroy them.”

But the Holy Prophet(saw) said, “Nay! Nay! I trust that Allah the Exalted shall give birth to such people from among them who shall worship the one true God.”[23]

(Erratum: the section ‘Demise of Hadhat Khadijah(ra) and Abu Talib’ and ‘Adversity of the Holy Prophet(saw) Intensified’ should have been included in the February 2012 Edition, hence has been included here.)

Endnotes

  1. Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, by Muhammad bin ‘Abdul-Baqi Az-Zarqani, Vol.2, p.49, Babu Wafati Khadijata wa Abi Talib, Darul Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
  2. Sahih Bukhari, Kitabu Manaqibil-Ansar, Babu Qissati Abi Talib, Hadith No.3884
  3. Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, by Muhammad bin ‘Abdul-Baqi Az-Zarqani, Vol.2, pp.46-48, Babu Wafati Khadijata wa Abi Talib, Darul Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
  4. At-Tabaqatul-Kurba, by Muhammad bin Sa’d, Vol.1, p.59, Babu Dhikri Abi Talib wa Dammihi Rasulillahi, Darul-Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
  5. Life of ‘Mahomet’, by Sir William Muir, p.105, Reprint of the 1894 Ed. Published by Voice of India, New Delhi
  6. * Tarikhut-Tabari, by Abu Ja’far Muhammad bin Al-Jarir Tabari, Vol.2, p.241, Babu Dhikril-Khabri ‘amma kana min Amri Nabiyyillahi ‘inda Ibtida’illahi Ta’ala….,Darul-Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon, Second Edition (2002)
    * At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, by Muhammad bin Sa’d, Vol.1, p.59, Babu Dhikri Abi Talib wa Dammihi Rasulillahi, Darul-Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
  7. Sahih Bukhari, Kitabu Manaqibil-Ansar, Babu Tazqijin-Nabi Khadijata wa Fadliha, Hadith No. 3818,3821
  8. As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, by Abu Muhammad ‘Abdul-Malik bin Hisham, p.444, Babu Dhikri Ru’ya ‘Atikata binti ‘Abdil-Muttalib, Darul Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (2001)
  9. Sharhul-‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, by Muhammad bin ‘Abdul-Baqi Az-Zarqani, Vol.2, p.49, Babu Wafati Khadijata wa Abi Talib, Darul Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
  10. As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, by Abu Muhammad ‘Abdul-Malik bin Hisham, p.299, Babu Wafati Abi Talibin wa Khadijah, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (2001)
  11. Tarikhut-Tabari, by Abu Ja’far Muhammad bin Al-Jarir Tabari, Vol.2, p.241, Babu Dhikril-Khabri ‘amma kana min Amri Nabiyyillahi(saw) ‘inda Ibtida’illahi Ta’ala……, Darul-Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon, Second Edition (2002).
  12. Sahih Bukhari, Kitabul-Maghazi, Babu Du‘a’in-Nabiyyi(saw) ‘ala Kuffari Quraish….., Hadith No. 3960
  13. At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, By Muhammad bin Sa‘d, Vol. 1, p. 104, Dhikru Du‘a’i Rasulillahi(saw) Qaba’ilal- ‘Arab fil-Mawasim, Darul-Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
  14. * At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, By Muhammad bin Sa‘d, Vol. 1, p. 104, Dhikru Du‘a’i Rasulillahi(saw) Qaba’ilal-‘Arab fil-Mawasim, Darul-Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
    * Tarikhut-Tabari, By Abu Ja‘far Muhammad bin Al-Jarir Tabari, Vol. 2, pp. 243-244, Babu Dhikril-Khabri ‘amma kana min Amri Nabiyyillahisa ‘inda Ibtida’illahi Ta‘ala……, Darul-Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon, Second Edition (2002)
  15. Az-Zukhruf (Ch.43:V.32)
  16. At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, By Muhammad bin Sa‘d, Vol. 1, p. 102, Dhikru Sababi Khuruji Rasulillahisa ilat-Ta’if, Darul-Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
  17. * As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, By Abu Muhammad ‘Abdul-Malik bin Hisham, p. 300, Babu Sa‘yur-Rasuli ila Thaqifin Yatlubun-Nusrah, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (2001)
    * Tarikhut-Tabari, By Abu Ja‘far Muhammad bin Al-Jarir Tabari, Vol. 2, p. 241, Babu Dhikril-Khabri ‘amma kana min Amri Nabiyyillahi(saw) ‘inda Ibtida’illahi Ta‘ala……, Darul-Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon, Second Edition (2002)
  18. At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, Vol. 1, p. 102, By Ibni Sa‘d, Dhikru Sababi Khuruji Rasulillahisa ilat-Ta’if, Darul-Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (1996)
  19. The name Ibnu ‘Abdi Yalil is mentioned in Hadith– refer to Sahih Bukhari, Kitabu Bad’il-Khalq, Babu Idha Qala Ahadukum Amin, Hadith No. 3231
  20. * As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, By Abu Muhammad ‘Abdul-Malik bin Hisham, pp. 301-302, Babu Sa‘yur-Rasuli ila Thaqifin Yatlubun-Nusrah, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition (2001)
    * Tarikhut-Tabari, By Abu Ja‘far Muhammad bin Al-Jarir Tabari, Vol. 2, pp. 241-242, Babu Dhikril-Khabri ‘amma kana min Amri Nabiyyillahisa ‘inda Ibtida’illahi Ta‘ala……, Darul-Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon, Second Edition (2002)
  21. Sahih Bukhari, Kitabu Bad’il-Khalq, Babu Idha Qala Ahadukum Amin, Hadith No. 3231
  22. Life of ‘Mahomet’, By Sir William Muir, pp. 112-113, Reprint of the 1894 Ed., Published by Voice of India New Delhi (Publishers)
  23. Sahih Bukhari, Kitabu Bad’il-Khalq, Babu Idha qala ahadukum amin…, Hadith No. 3231

 

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